INDIAN AND INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENTS
Steve Sachs

Environmental Developments

         Brett Wilkins, "The Climate Emergency Is 'Now': Over 400 Weather Stations Set New Heat Records in 2021: Ten countries set or matched national monthly high temperature marks last year," Common Dreams, January 7, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/01/07/climate-emergency-now-over-400-weather-stations-set-new-heat-records-2021, reported, " Last year saw record-breaking high temperatures recorded at more than 400 weather stations around the world, with meteorologists voicing alarm over what climate scientists say is the shape of things to come, according to a report published Friday.
        The Guardian reports that 10 countries—Canada, Dominica, Italy, Morocco, Oman, Taiwan, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States—set or matched their national monthly high temperature records last year."
         Brad Plumer, Raymond Zhong and Lisa Friedman, "Time Is Running Out to Avert a Harrowing Future, Climate Panel Warns: The impacts of global warming are appearing faster than expected, according to a major new scientific report. It could soon become much harder to cope," The New York Times, March 1, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/28/climate/climate-change-ipcc-un-report.html, reported, " The dangers of climate change are mounting so rapidly that they could soon overwhelm the ability of both nature and humanity to adapt, creating a harrowing future in which floods, fires and famine displace millions, species disappear and the planet is irreversibly damaged, a major new scientific report (https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg2/ ) [by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] has concluded."
        The report found, " In the coming decades, as global temperatures continue to rise, hundreds of millions of people could struggle against floods, deadly heat waves and water scarcity from severe drought, the report said. Mosquitoes carrying diseases like dengue and malaria will spread to new parts of the globe. Crop failures could become more widespread, putting families in places like Africa and Asia at far greater risk of hunger and malnutrition. People unable to adapt to the enormous environmental shifts will end up suffering unavoidable loss or fleeing their homes, creating dislocation on a global scale, the authors said"
        The report stated, that to avert the most catastrophic impacts can only be avoided if nations act quickly and strongly to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases that are dangerously heating the planet, the report said.
        The U.N. Report on Climate Hazards of February 28, 2022 made five additional major points.
        Already the world’s poorest nations are increasingly struggling with the shocks of climate change and are likely to need hundreds of billions of dollars per year in financial support that they do not have during the next few decades to protect themselves. So far, the wealthier nations have been slow to provide for this need, which is in their interest also in helping the poorer states take actions that they cannot otherwise afford to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to prevent disruption in these countries which will upset economic relations with them, cause violence that is likely to spread and impact other nations, and burden the richer nations with floods of refugees and increasing demands for humanitarian aid.
        Global temperatures have risen already by an average of 1.1 degrees Celsius, or 2 degrees Fahrenheit, since the 19th century, as a result of humans releasing pumped heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere by burning coal, oil and gas for energy, and cutting down forests. Numerous national leaders have pledged to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels, the point beyond which scientists say catastrophic climate impacts are likely to greatly increase. To achieve this objective requires the world's nations to virtually eliminate their fossil fuel emissions by 2050. To date, most nations are far from reducing their fossil fuel emissions anywhere near sufficiently, leaving the world on track to warm somewhere in the devastating range of 2 degrees to 3 degrees Celsius by the end of this century.
         A major issue in the international negotiations over how to limit and adopt to already serious global warming induced climate change is just what the industrialized nations most responsible for greenhouse gas emissions owe developing countries that have done the least to cause global warming, but suffer most from it and are least able to meet it. Low-income nations seek financial assistance, both to defend against future climate change and to compensate for damages they have already suffered and are unable to avoid on their own. The issue will again be debated, in November 2022, when governments meet in Egypt for the next United Nations climate summit. Already the costs of climate change are very large for poor nations, and are rising. For example, Ethiopia aims to spend $6 billion a year, 5.6 percent of its annual economic output for a set of adaptation measures. South Sudan, one of the world’s poorest nations, is preparing to spend $376 million a year until 2030 to address climate-fueled flooding, which is but one of the harms it suffers from global warming.
        Examples of the increasing suffering from climate change encompass: extreme drought in northern Kenya ravaging crops and pastures, bringing death to people and animals, as the inhabitants “are not even able to provide food for their animals or themselves,” while some, who are able, move to wetter regions bringing overcrowding and conflict there. Thousands of people have left their land in Central America as a result of drought and uncertain changes in rainfall pattern. Some have been able to remain by taking climate adaptation measures, but these may become ineffective as climate change becomes more extreme. Debora Ley, an energy specialist based in Guatemala who contributed to the report noted that among rising seas, droughts, and mudslides worsened by deforestation, some communities in the region may face collapse.
        The report, approved by 195 governments, shows clearly that risks to humans and nature accelerate with every additional fraction of a degree of warming. For example, if global warming reaches 1.5 degrees Celsius, up to 8 percent of the world’s farmland could become unusable for growing food by 2100. Coral reefs, which buffer coastlines against storms and are important supporters of sea life, are likely to decline by 70 to 90 percent. The number of people around the world exposed to severe coastal flooding could increase by more than 20 percent without new protections, and many of these would fail in time, as oceans continue to rise.
        If the Earth warms by 2 degrees Celsius of warming, the world's land consumed by wildfires each year
likely would increase by more than one-third. Between 800 million and 3 billion people globally might well face chronic water scarcity , including more than one-third of the population in southern Europe. Crop yields and fish harvests in many places would also decline in many locations.
        At 3 degrees of warming, the risk of extreme weather events could rise fivefold by 2100. Flooding from sea level rise and heavier rainstorms might increase economic damage worldwide fourfold its current, already significantly greater, level. As many as 29 percent of known plant and animal species on land might be at a high risk of extinction
.
        So far, numerous nations have been partially able to limit the damage to some extent by spending billions of dollars each year on adaptation measures such as flood barriers, air-conditioning or early-warning systems for devastating storms. Early storm warning has cut deaths from storms in half, world-wide, over the last half century. But as climate change increases, the costs of adaptation are rising exponentially and could well exceed the ability of both humanity and nature to adapt, if greenhouse gas emissions are not quickly and sufficiently reduced, reaching virtually zero by 2050. Moreover, many communities continue behavior that increase their vulnerability to climate change. One reason flood risk is growing along the coasts, is that millions of people are moving to low-lying areas that are endangered by sea level rise, in many cases because of the impacts of climate change on their former living places. Further, some adaptation measures have unintended consequences. For instance, sea walls protect certain places but may shift flooding into populated areas elsewhere, and may have other negative environmental impacts. Irrigation can help protect crops against drought but can also deplete groundwater resources. This is already a major problem in many places, such as the major agricultural areas of California. The report emphasizes that rather than short term solutions, the world's communities and nations need to focus on long-term greenhouse gas reduction and adaptation.

         Jake Johnson, "'Our House Is Truly on Fire': Earth Now Has 50% Chance of Hitting 1.5°C of Warming by 2026: 'The 1.5°C figure is not some random statistic,' said the head of the World Meteorological Organization. 'It is rather an indicator of the point at which climate impacts will become increasingly harmful for people and indeed the entire planet,'" Common Dreams, May 10, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/05/10/our-house-truly-fire-earth-now-has-50-chance-hitting-15degc-warming-2026, reported, " The World Meteorological Organization warned Monday that the planet now faces a 50% chance of temporarily hitting 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels over the next five years, another signal that political leaders—particularly those of the rich nations most responsible for carbon emissions—are failing to rein in fossil fuel use.
        In 2015, by comparison, the likelihood of briefly reaching or exceeding 1.5°C of global warming over the ensuing five-year period was estimated to be "close to zero," the WMO noted in a new climate update (https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/wmo-update-5050-chance-of-global-temperature-temporarily-reaching-15°c-threshold). The report was published amid a deadly heatwave on the Indian subcontinent that scientists say is a glimpse of what's to come if runaway carbon emissions aren't halted. Thus far, the heatwave has killed dozens in India and Pakistan.
        Signatories to the Paris climate accord have agreed to act to limit the global average temperature increase to well below 2°C—preferably to 1.5°C—by the end of the century. Climate advocates have deemed the 1.5°C target 'on life support' following world leaders' refusal to commit to more ambitious action at the COP26 summit in Glasgow late last year.
        'We are getting measurably closer to temporarily reaching the lower target of the Paris Agreement,' Petteri Taalas, the secretary-general of the WMO, said in a statement Monday. 'The 1.5°C figure is not some random statistic. It is rather an indicator of the point at which climate impacts will become increasingly harmful for people and indeed the entire planet.'
        'For as long as we continue to emit greenhouse gases, temperatures will continue to rise,' Taalas added. 'And alongside that, our oceans will continue to become warmer and more acidic, sea ice and glaciers will continue to melt, sea level will continue to rise and, our weather will become more extreme. Arctic warming is disproportionately high and what happens in the Arctic affects all of us.'
        Dr. Leon Hermanson, a climate expert at the U.K. Met Office who led the WMO report, stressed that a short-lived breach of the 1.5°C threshold would not mean that the world is guaranteed to fall short of the Paris accord's most ambitious warming target, which climate experts and campaigners have long decried as inadequate.
        Such a breach, however, would 'reveal that we are edging ever closer to a situation where 1.5°C could be exceeded for an extended period,' said Hermanson.
        The WMO's latest research also estimates that there is a 93% chance that at least one year between 2022 and 2026 will be the warmest on record. Currently, 2016 and 2020 are tied for the top spot.
        Even if global warming is limited to 1.5°C by 2100, countless people across the globe will still face devastating heatwaves, droughts, and other extreme weather, with the poor facing the worst consequences.
        Meanwhile , key ecosystems could be damaged beyond repair in a 1.5°C hotter world. One recent study found that 99% of the world's coral reefs would experience heatwaves that are "too frequent for them to recover" if the planet gets 1.5°C warmer compared to pre-industrial levels.
         Scientists behind the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report cautioned last month that if there's to be any hope of keeping warming to 1.5°C or below by 2100, 'it's now or never.'
        'Without immediate and deep emissions reductions across all sectors, it will be impossible,' said Jim Skea, co-chair of IPCC Working Group III.
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         Damian Carrington and Matthew Taylor, "Revealed: the ‘carbon bombs’ set to trigger catastrophic climate breakdown, Exclusive: Oil and gas majors are planning scores of vast projects that threaten to shatter the 1.5C climate goal. If governments do not act, these firms will continue to cash in as the world burns," Guardian, May 11, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2022/may/11/fossil-fuel-carbon-bombs-climate-breakdown-oil-gas, reported, "         The world’s biggest fossil fuel firms are quietly planning scores of 'carbon bomb' oil and gas projects that would drive the climate past internationally agreed temperature limits with catastrophic global impacts, a Guardian investigation shows.
        The exclusive data shows these firms are in effect placing multibillion-dollar bets against humanity halting global heating. Their huge investments in new fossil fuel production could pay off only if countries fail to rapidly slash carbon emissions, which scientists say is vital."

        Henry Fountain and Jeremy White , " Rising From the Antarctic, a Climate Alarm: Wilder winds are altering currents. The sea is releasing carbon dioxide. Ice is melting from below," The New Yok Times, December 17,2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/12/13/climate/antarctic-climate-change.html, reported, that scientist are finding that the Antarctic Ocean, which has a major impact on the world's climate and weather, is experiencing shifting currents becauseof globak warming that may have a very wide impact, "They have discovered that global warming is affecting the Antarctic current in complex ways, and these shifts could complicate the ability to fight climate change in the future."
        "Scientists better understand how closely intertwined the Southern Ocean is, despite its remoteness, with the rest of the world. The circular flow of water around Antarctica is, in effect, a climate engine spinning on a continental scale.
        With this new knowledge, researchers are now growing increasingly alarmed about how the ocean and current may change as the Earth continues to warm."

         Henry Fountain, "Sea Ice Around Antarctica Reaches a Record Low: The drop surprised scientists, and may help them understand more about climate change affecting Antarctica and its waters," The New York Times, February 23, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/23/climate/antarctica-sea-ice-arctic.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220301&instance_id=54555&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=84290&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Sea ice around Antarctica has reached a record low in four decades of observations, a new analysis of satellite images shows.
        As of Tuesday, ice covered 750,000 square miles around the Antarctic coast, below the previous record low of 815,000 square miles in early March 2017, according to the analysis by the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo."

         Kenny Stancil, "'Addiction to Fossil Fuels Is Mutually Assured Destruction,' Warns UN Chief: 'Instead of hitting the brakes on the decarbonization of the global economy' amid Russia's war on Ukraine, 'now is the time to put the pedal to the metal towards a renewable energy future,' said United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres," Common Dreams, March 21, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/03/21/addiction-fossil-fuels-mutually-assured-destruction-warns-un-chief, reported, " 'The 1.5-degree goal is on life support. It is in intensive care.'
         So said United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres on Monday, as he stressed that a swift and just transition to clean energy is necessary to meet the Paris agreement's objective of limiting global temperature rise to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels—and warned against using Russia's deadly assault on Ukraine as an excuse to ramp up fossil fuel production worldwide.
        'The science is clear. So is the math,' the U.N. leader said during a speech delivered at a Sustainability Summit hosted by The Economist. 'Keeping 1.5 alive requires a 45% reduction in global emissions by 2030 and carbon neutrality by mid-century.' And yet, 'according to present national commitments, global emissions are set to increase by almost 14% in the 2020s.'
         'We are sleepwalking to climate catastrophe,' Guterres continued. 'Our planet has already warmed by as much as 1.2 degrees—and we see the devastating consequences everywhere. In 2020, climate disasters forced 30 million people to flee their homes—three times more than those displaced by war and violence.'
        Just this past weekend, scientists conveyed shock and alarm in response to reports that temperatures at both of Earth's poles reached more than 50°F above average last week. Peer-reviewed research published on Friday foundthat increasingly frequent and intense wildfires around the globe are exacerbating Arctic warming, which is worsening the conditions that make future blazes more likely."

         Jake Johnson, "Scientists Fear Soaring Methane Levels Show Climate Feedback Loop Has Arrived: Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric methane are "very bad news for humanity and the planet," warned one observer," Common Dreams, February 9, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/02/09/scientists-fear-soaring-methane-levels-show-climate-feedback-loop-has-arrived, reported, " Fresh U.S. government data spotlighting the rapid growth of atmospheric methane concentrations in recent years has scientists increasingly concerned that the human-caused climate crisis has triggered a vicious feedback loop, potentially resulting in unstoppable planetary warming.
        Research published in January by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) showed that atmospheric concentrations of methane—a greenhouse gas that's 80 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 20-year period—soared past 1,900 parts per billion in 2021, which ranked as the fourth-warmest year on record.
        As Nature reported Tuesday, 'The growth of methane emissions slowed around the turn of the millennium, but began a rapid and mysterious uptick around 2007.'
         'The spike has caused many researchers to worry that global warming is creating a feedback mechanism that will cause ever more methane to be released, making it even harder to rein in rising temperatures,' the outlet noted. 'Potential explanations [for the methane surge] range from the expanding exploitation of oil and natural gas and rising emissions from landfill to growing livestock herds and increasing activity by microbes in wetlands.'
        Euan Nisbet, an Earth scientist at Royal Holloway, University of London, told Nature that 'methane levels are growing dangerously fast' as powerful countries around the world refuse to end the extraction of coal, natural gas, and other sources of the pollutant.
        'Is warming feeding the warming? It's an incredibly important question,' said Nisbet. 'As yet, no answer, but it very much looks that way.'
         Scientists have long feared that the continued burning of fossil fuels risks setting in motion a chain reaction whose consequences—particularly ever-more global warming—are irreversible.
        While researchers are still working to discern the extent to which human activity is responsible for the alarming spike in atmospheric methane levels in recent years, scientists have previously warned against categorizing certain causes of methane emissions—such as thawing permafrost—as 'natural,' given that they are typically a result of human-driven warming.
'Regardless of how this mystery plays out, humans are not off the hook,' Nature stressed Tuesday. "Based on their latest analysis of the isotopic trends, [NOAA scientist Xin Lan's] team estimates that anthropogenic sources such as livestock, agricultural waste, landfill, and fossil-fuel extraction accounted for about 62% of total methane emissions since from 2007 to 2016.'
        NOAA's latest figures were released months after the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned in its 2021 landmark report that atmospheric methane levels are currently higher than at any point in the last 800,000 years.
        Despite such a dire finding, global policymakers took few steps to substantively address methane emissions at the COP26 climate summit in November. While dozens of additional countries signed on to a pledge to reduce methane emissions by 30% from 2020 levels by the end of the decade, climate groups argued that 'pledges are just words on a page without concrete action to make them real.'
        Amid the COP26 talks, the Biden administration unveiled rules aimed at cutting U.S. methane emissions, but critics said they do not go nearly far enough. The U.S. is the second-largest emitter of methane in the world.
         'For too long, we've known the damaging impacts of this potent heat-trapping pollutant, known that oil and gas operations continue to be a major source of it, and known that solutions to drive rapid reductions across the sector already exist—yet still, oil and gas operations continue to release untenably high and entirely preventable methane emissions,' Julie McNamara, deputy policy director of the Climate and Energy Program at the Union of Concerned Scientists, said in a statement at the time.
         'Swiftly reducing methane emissions,' said McNamara, 'will result in significant and much-needed near-term climate progress.'
        Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."

         Methane emissions worldwid. in 2021 increased bya record rate to reach the highest level ever recorded (Raymond Zhong, "Methane Emissions, Noxious to Climate, Soared to Record in 2021, Scientists Say," The New York Times, April 8, 2022).
         Thirteen huge plums of methane were observed in the single pass of a satellite over the Raspadskya coal mine in Russia, in 2021, that was then emitting about 95 tons of methane an hour (Henry Fountain, "Huge Methane Releases Traced to Russian Mine," The New York Times, June 16, 2022).

        Forest Declaration Platform: Transforming commitments into action, "Sink or swim: How Indigenous and community lands can make or break nationally determined contributions, March 31, 2022, https://forestdeclaration.org/resources/sink-or-swim/, reported in summary, " The critical importance of Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) has long been left out of the climate change solutions conversation.
        If the international community is to have any chance of meeting the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees C, that needs to change. In forested areas, protecting IPLCs and their land can go a long way in reducing carbon emissions and protecting carbon sinks
.
         This report, authored by researchers from World Resources Institute and Climate Focus, explores the role that IPLCs play in combating climate change. The report focuses on IPLCs in four countries – Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico – and analyzes the role that IPLCs play in reducing carbon emissions in each of those countries’ forested areas.
        IPLCs are incredible stewards and protectors of their lands and play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions.
         Lands that are home to IPLCs are more effective carbon sinks (meaning that they store more carbon than they emit) than non-IPLC lands because of the traditional and sustainable land management practices used by IPLCs and the fact that they are largely untouched forested lands. To help underscore the relationship and importance of IPLCs and GHG emissions reductions, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru account for 5.1% of global GHG emissions yet store 28% of global carbon across their IPLC lands. Additionally, 80% of the IPLC lands in these countries (IPLC lands in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and just IP lands in Peru) serve as net sinks and sequester approximately 30 MgCO2e per hectare. IPLC lands also sequester over 2 times as much carbon as non-IPLC lands.
         Currently, NDCs fall short in recognizing IPLCs and their lands.
         While each country briefly references IPLCs from the standpoint of the NDC planning processes, none of the countries analyzed in the report included IPLC related targets in their updated NDCs. Only Colombia and Peru outlined specific actions to support and integrate IPLCs into their formal climate solutions. Additionally, only Mexico and Colombia have included forestry targets in their updated NDC.
         To enhance NDCs, there are a few steps that governments can take. Governments should strengthen partnership with IPLCs, integrating IPLC knowledge and technologies into their NDCs. Countries should also work with IPLCs to define ways that they can contribute to emissions reductions and ambition enhancement, developing initiatives that maximize and complement IPLCs’ ability to sustainably manage land and forests. Furthermore, countries should include IPLC’s contribution to forest sector targets in national inventories so that their lands can be accounted for as carbon sources or sinks. This data would be beneficial for the sake of the monitoring of national emissions inventories.
        Beyond NDCs, governments should legally recognize IPLC lands, provide rights to land ownership for IPLCs, recognize IPLCs’ right to free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), respect IPLC rights in practice, and actively empower IPLCs. Taking these steps would not only allow IPLCs to have the platform that they need to continue to contribute to global carbon reduction, but also honor the very existence, autonomy, and culture of IPLCs.
        Key findings:
        NDCs and other related policy documents fall short in establishing actions, targets, and policies relating to IPLCs and their lands. The countries assessed include limited references to IPLC lands in the context of fairness, rights and IPLCs involvement in the policy planning processes but fail to acknowledge the crucial role of their lands in meeting national targets.
         On a per hectare basis, at least 80% of forested IPLC lands in the four countries are net sinks of CO2e, sequestering annually at least 30 Mg CO2e/ha on average. On average, these lands sequester more than twice as much CO2e/ha as non-IPLC lands.
        IPLCs lands account for 28% of above ground carbon stored in forests globally. Annually, they sequester an amount of CO2e equivalent to, on average, 30% of the four countries’ unconditional 2030 targets. Without these contributions, other key economic sectors would have to pick up the slack to achieve the emission reduction targets promised. For instance, Brazil and Colombia would have to retire 80% of their vehicle fleet and Mexico would need to retire 35% of its vehicle fleet to account for the loss of carbon sequestered by IPLC lands, whereas Peru would have to retire their entire vehicle fleet to make up for just half of the loss of IPLC contributions
        Existing governance frameworks in the four countries fall far short of what is needed to realize the mitigation potential offered by IPLC lands. In all four countries, these lands are under constant threat from ranching, mining, and logging, much of which is illegal and linked to corruption and collusion between governments and illegal actors. Governments need to accelerate titling efforts and ensure IPLCs have full rights to the land they own, recognize and respect their right to free, prior, and informed consent, take measures to ensure rights are respected in practice, and actively empower IPLCs to manage their forest through adequate finance and support.
To reconfirm commitment to the Paris Agreement, all four countries in the research have signed on to the 2021 Glasgow Declaration on Forests and Land Use aimed at strengthening efforts in the sector to be 1.5C compatible. Hence, meeting or enhancing NDCs’ targets in this key sector will require accounting for the carbon sinks of IPLCs lands
."
        The full report is available as a PDF at: https://forestdeclaration.org/resources/sink-or-swim/#div_block-64-171.

         Maggie Astor, "Methane Leaks in New Mexico Far Exceed Current Estimates, Study Suggests: An analysis found leaks of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from oil and gas drilling in the Permian Basin were many times higher than government estimates," The New York Times, March 24, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/24/climate/methane-leaks-new-mexico.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220325&instance_id=56747&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=86590&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Startlingly large amounts of methane are leaking from wells and pipelines in New Mexico, according to a new analysis of aerial data, suggesting that the oil and gas industry may be contributing more to climate change than was previously known.
         The study, by researchers at Stanford University, estimates that oil and gas operations in New Mexico’s Permian Basin are releasing 194 metric tons per hour of methane, a planet-warming gas many times more potent than carbon dioxide. That is more than six times as much as the latest estimate from the Environmental Protection Agency."

         Environmental groups have posted a map on-line at: https://oilandgasthreatmap.com/threat-map/ of areas in the United States where people have a health risk from pollution from oil and gas extraction. The web site states that:         "THREATENED PEOPLE: 17,295,499 people live within the threat radius
        OIL AND GAS FACILITIES:
1,554,394 wells, compressors & processors
        THREATENED STUDENTS:
3,185,097 students within the threat radius
        THREATENED SCHOOLS:
12,445 schools & day cares within the threat radius
        THREATENED AREA:
212,747 square miles lie within the threat radius
        THREATENED PEOPLE OF COLOR:
5,723,805 threatened non-white people."

        "KXL Official Termination "marks the end of one heck of a fight!", Indigenous Environmental Network, June 16, 2022, https://www.mynewsletterbuilder.com/email/newsletter/1415865945, reported,         "TC Energy just announced the final nail in the coffin for the Keystone XL pipeline project. We are thrilled with this news as this has been a long fought affair over years building collective support over a wide range of people, tribes, and groups. President Biden had denied the international border crossing for KXL on his first day in office effectively stalling construction. Permits were later turned back over to states like in South Dakota, but it wasn't until a final decision to scrap the project from the company that we could say the project is dead.
        Over the years an unlikely coalition of Tribal Nations, farmers and ranchers, and nonprofit groups joined together to fight back against the threat that this project posed to our homelands, water, and people. It brought to light issues of Tribal sovereignty, free, prior, informed consent, water rights, eminent domain and set a precedent of how to fight back against big oil pipelines."
        
        "Faulty Infrastructure and The Impacts of the Dakota Access Pipeline," NDN Collective DZPL Report, March 2022, https://climatejustice.ndncollective.org/dapl-report/, reported,
         Faulty Infrastructure and the Impacts of the Dakota Access Pipeline, is the first report to lay out a full and factual timeline of the DAPL process. This report shows the depth and details of co-conspiring between the Army Corps of Engineers and the owners of DAPL, illuminating the level of recklessness both parties are willing to take in the name of profit.For the last year the NDN Collective Climate Justice Team has been working with a team of engineering experts to produce this report that details how the Dakota Access Pipeline is technically unsafe and why the entirety of the DAPL process has lacked integrity through due process.
        Read the Report: https://ndncollective-org.nyc3.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/app/uploads/sites/3/2022/03/00099-02_NDN_DAPL_Report_BOOK_FINAL.pdf
         The illegally operating Dakota Access Pipeline must be drained and permanently shut down as a matter of adherence to tribal sovereignty, the law, and environmental protection.
        – Kailea Fredrick, Climate Justice Organizer, NDN Collective.
View PDF
        Faulty Infrastructure
         On July 22, 2021, Energy Transfer LP was fined $93,200 by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) for multiple violations of the Pipeline Safety Regulations , Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.
        As of May 2020 , Energy Transfer’s Sunoco subsidiary ranks eighth-worst for volume spilled per mile for the last three years on pipelines carrying hazardous liquids such as crude oil, which DAPL transports. Since May 2020, Sunoco has reported an additional 27 hazardous liquid spills.
         Sunoco has had 38 accidents that have harmed people or the environment, more than any other operator in the last five years, and it has one of the largest pipeline systems.
         The Dakota Access Pipeline had 5 REPORTED (to Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administration) spills in the first six months of operation.
         Up to 75 percent of potential leaks might be undetectable including where the pipeline runs under Lake Oahe.
        A summary version of the report is at: https://ndncollective-org.nyc3.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/app/uploads/sites/3/2022/03/00099-02_NDN_DAPL_Report_BOOK_FINAL.pdf."

         The failure of Congress to pass The Build Back Better Bill with its climate change meeting provisions has the potential to result in lowering the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. by 2030 from a projected approximate 3.8 metric tons annually, if the bill had been enacted and put into practice, to only about 5.2 metric tons annually if current trends continue (Brad Plumer and Nadja Popovich, "What One Bill's Fate Means for the Climate," The New York Times, December 22, 2021).

         Coral Davenport, "Biden Plans to Open More Public Land to Drilling: The president is under pressure to bring down gas prices, but any new drilling would be years away. The fees that companies pay would rise sharply," The New York Times, April 15, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/15/climate/biden-drilling-oil-leases.html, reported, "The Biden administration announced on Friday that it would resume selling leases for new oil and gas drilling on public lands, but would also raise the federal royalties that companies must pay to drill, the first increase in those fees in more than a century.
        The Interior Department said in a statement that it planned next week to auction off leases to drill on 145,000 acres of public lands in nine states. They would be the first new fossil fuel leases to be offered on public lands since President Biden took office."

        "Settlements: Biden administration will address oil and gas leasing climate impacts on nearly 4 million acres of western U.S. public lands, reconsider sales to oil and gas industry," Western Environmental Law Center, June 2, 2022, https://westernlaw.org/settlements-biden-administration-will-address-oil-and-gas-leasing-climate-impacts-on-nearly-4-million-acres-of-western-u-s-public-lands-reconsider-sales-to-oil-and-gas-industry/, reported, "In response to lawsuits filed by WildEarth Guardians, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and the Western Environmental Law Center, the Biden administration will review and reconsider decisions to sell nearly 4 million acres of public lands oil and gas leases as part of three settlement agreements upheld by a federal judge this week.
        'This suite of cases has entirely recast the federal government’s obligation to consider the cumulative climate impacts of oil and gas leasing on public lands,' said Kyle Tisdel, senior attorney and Climate and Energy Program director for the Western Environmental Law Center. 'The incompatibility of continued fossil fuel exploitation with a livable planet is crystal clear. These settlements represent a fundamental opportunity for the Biden administration to align federal action with this climate reality and to keep its promise to present and future generations.'
Between 2016 and 2021, the groups filed lawsuits challenging the sale of millions of acres of public lands for fracking in Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.
        The suits targeted the failure of the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management to address the climate implications of leasing oil and gas, which conveys a right for companies to extract and pollute. In an order late yesterday, Judge Rudolph Contreras dismissed the cases, upholding the settlements and rejecting industry attempts to derail the agreements.
        'This is a big win for the climate and a real test to see if the Biden administration is going to get serious about confronting the climate impacts of selling public lands for fracking,' said Jeremy Nichols, Climate and Energy Program director for WildEarth Guardians. 'With the oil and gas industry bent on despoiling America’s public lands and fueling the climate crisis, this is a critical opportunity for the Biden administration to chart a new path toward clean energy and independence from fossil fuels.'
        Fossil fuels extracted from public lands and waters, including coal, oil, and gas, are responsible for more than 900 million metric tons of climate pollution, equal to the emissions from nearly 200 million vehicles. As these fossil fuels are produced and consumed, the emissions account for nearly a quarter of all greenhouse gases released in U.S.Together, oil and gas extracted from public lands and waters account for nearly 10% of all climate pollution released in the U.S.
        'Our settlements give new hope that we can more effectively confront the climate crisis and protect our health from oil and gas extraction,” said Barbara Gottlieb, director of Environment & Health at Physicians for Social Responsibility. “Given how dangerously greenhouse gas levels are rising, it’s critical that the Biden administration put the brakes on fracking and speed up the transition away from fossil fuels.'
        Scientists have warned that to prevent the worst effects of the climate crisis, oil, gas, and coal production must rapidly decrease worldwide, and ultimately end. In spite of this dire warning, the federal government has for years rubber-stamped more oil and gas leasing, locking in more greenhouse gas emissions. Most of this leasing has involved public lands in the western U.S.
        The groups’ agreements provide new hope that the Biden administration will change course from previous federal administrations. President Biden already ordered a pause on new oil and gas leasing as part of an executive order tackling the climate crisis. Although this pause was halted by a federal judge, the administration has appealed this ruling.
        In 2016, the groups filed suit challenging the sale of nearly 460,000 acres of public lands oil and gas leases in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of D.C., the case was the first to target the failure of Interior to address the nationwide climate impacts of its oil and gas leasing program.
        In 2019, Judge Contreras ruled in favor of the groups. In the landmark ruling, Judge Contreras chided the federal government for ignoring the cumulative climate implications of oil and gas leasing.
        Following this ruling, the groups again filed suit in 2020, challenging nearly 2 million acres of oil and gas leases in Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Interior ultimately conceded defeat in late 2020 over most of the leasing. Shortly after, Judge Contreras issued another ruling in favor of the groups over the federal government’s failure to respond to his original order on remand.
        In January 2021, right before President Biden assumed office, the groups again filed suit challenging the sale of more than 1 million acres of oil and gas leases in the western U.S.
The settlements resolve the three lawsuits, committing the Biden administration to address the climate implications of oil and gas leasing and reconsider past decisions. Citing the agreements, Judge Contreras today dismissed the three lawsuits.
        Contacts:
        Kyle Tisdel, Western Environmental Law Center, 575-770-7501, tisdel@westernlaw.org
Jeremy Nichols, WildEarth Guardians, 303-437-7663, jnichols@wildearthguardians.org
Daniel Timmons, WildEarth Guardians, 505-570-7014, dtimmons@wildearthguardians.org
Barbara Gottlieb, Physicians for Social Responsibility, 301-806-6826, bgottlieb@psr.org."

         Andrea Germanos, "Pushed by Progressives, Biden Invokes Defense Production Act to Boost Renewable Energy: 'We hope this use of the Defense Production Act is a turning point for the president, who must use all his executive powers to confront the climate emergency head-on,' said Jean Su with the Center for Biological Diversity," Common Dreams, June 6, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/06/06/pushed-progressives-biden-invokes-defense-production-act-boost-renewable-energy, reported, " The White House announced on Monday executive actions to help 'create a bridge' to a 'clean energy future' including invoking the Defense Production Act to ramp up production of U.S.-made solar panels.
        The actions, first reported by Reuters, come as the Build Back Better's climate provisions remain stalled in the Senate and amid the threat of new tariffs the solar industry has blamed for dampening domestic projects.
        'We hope this use of the Defense Production Act is a turning point for the president, who must use all his executive powers to confront the climate emergency head-on,' said Jean Su, director of the Energy Justice program at the Center for Biological Diversity.
        In addition to climate groups and green energy advocates, progressive lawmakers have pushed President Joe Biden to leverage the DPA to increase renewable energy manufacturing in the U.S. to simultaneously address the climate crisis while reducing reliance on fossil fuels from authoritarian states.
        Beyond tapping the DPA for renewable technology, Biden's plan includes a two-year pause on "anti-dumping" tariffs imposed on solar panels and other key energy components from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia that could result from a Commerce Department investigation into whether Chinese companies are dodging penalties by moving operations to those Southeast Asian nations. China also stands accused of using Uyghur slave labor in its production of solar parts.
        A fact sheet from the White House states that Biden will:
         Authorize use of the Defense Production Act (DPA) to accelerate domestic production of clean energy technologies, including solar panel parts;
         Put the full power of federal procurement to work spurring additional domestic solar manufacturing capacity by directing the development of master supply agreements, including 'super preference' status; and
         Create a 24-month bridge as domestic manufacturing rapidly scales up to ensure the reliable supply of components that U.S. solar deployers need to construct clean energy projects and an electric grid for the 21st century, while reinforcing the integrity of our trade laws and processes.
         In addition to solar panel parts, the DPA will be used to expand production of other clean energy technologies including heat pumps and building insulation, according to the fact sheet.
        As the Commerce Department continues the probe it launched in March, the president is also 'temporarily facilitating U.S. solar deployers' ability to source solar modules and cells from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam by providing that those components can be imported free of certain duties for 24 months in order to ensure the U.S. has access to a sufficient supply of solar modules to meet electricity generation needs while domestic manufacturing scales up.'"

        Nicholas Kusnetz, "In the Philippines, a Landmark Finding Moves Fossil Fuel Companies' Climate Liability Into the Realm of Human Rights: While not binding, the findings of the report by the country’s Commission on Human Rights has broad implications for other cases, experts say, Inside Climate News, May 22, 2022, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/15052022/philippines-fossil-fuels-climate-liability/, reported that in the wake of over 6000 dead in the Philippines from Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 while damaging over 6000 homes, from which many communities have not recovered, The Philippines’ Commission on Human Rights found, in May 2022, that the world's largest fossil fuel companies were ultimately responsible, as they had had “engaged in willful obfuscation and obstruction to prevent meaningful climate action.” The companies continue to deny climate science and try to slow a transition away from fossil fuels, the report said, driven “not by ignorance, but by greed (https://chr.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/CHRP-NICC-Report-2022.pdf).”

         Lucy Craymer, "New Zealand to price sheep and cow burps to cut greenhouse gases," Reuters, June 8, 2022, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/new-zealand-price-sheep-cow-burps-cut-greenhouse-gases-2022-06-08/, reported, " New Zealand on Wednesday released a draft plan to put a price on agricultural emissions in a bid to tackle one of the country's biggest sources of greenhouse gases, belching sheep and cattle.
        The proposal would make New Zealand, a large agricultural exporter, the first country to have farmers pay for emissions from livestock, the Ministry for Environment said."

        Brett Wilkins, "'Unthinkable': Scientists Shocked as Polar Temperatures Soar 50 to 90 Degrees Above Normal: 'With everything going on in the world right now, the dual polar climate disasters of 2022 should be the top story,'" Common Dreams, March 20, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/03/20/unthinkable-scientists-shocked-polar-temperatures-soar-50-90-degrees-above-normal, reported, " Scientists expressed shock and alarm this weekend amid extreme high temperatures near both of the Earth's poles—the latest signs of the accelerating planetary climate emergency.
        'This event is completely unprecedented and upended our expectations about the Antarctic climate system.'
         Temperatures in parts of Antarctica were 50°F-90°F above normal in recent days, while earlier this week the mercury soared to over 50°F higher than average—close to the freezing mark—in areas of the Arctic.
        Stefano Di Battista, an Antarctic climatologist, tweeted that such record-shattering heat near the South Pole was 'unthinkable' and 'impossible.'"

         Kenny Stancil, "'Wake-Up Call': NOAA Predicts One-Foot Sea-Level Rise by 2050: 'This decade we're in right now is one of the most consequential decades for our climate future,' said one scientist," Common Dreams, February 15, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/02/15/wake-call-noaa-predicts-one-foot-sea-level-rise-2050, reported," Ocean levels along the U.S. coastline are projected to rise by an average of 10 to 12 inches over the next three decades, worsening the threat of flooding in dozens of highly populated cities , according to a new report (https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/sealevelrise/sealevelrise-tech-report.html) released Tuesday by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and other federal agencies.
        'The fact that there's this locked-in sea-level rise is not a reason to throw up our hands and say there's nothing we can do about this, because there absolutely is.'
        The additional foot of sea-level rise that millions in the U.S. are predicted to face by mid-century is equivalent to the amount experienced in the previous hundred years—a manifestation of the climate crisis that scientists attribute to unmitigated greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution driven primarily by the burning of fossil fuels.
         This intensification of rising seas 'will create a profound increase in the frequency of coastal flooding, even in the absence of storms or heavy rainfall,' said NOAA.
         'By 2050, moderate flooding —which is typically disruptive and damaging by today's weather, sea-level, and infrastructure standards—is expected to occur more than 10 times as often as it does today,' Nicole LeBoeuf, NOAA National Ocean Service director, said in a statement. 'These numbers mean a change from a single event every two to five years to multiple events each year, in some places.'
William Sweet, an oceanographer at the NOAA National Ocean Service, told the Washington Post that "we're unfortunately headed for a flood regime shift."
         'There will be water in the streets unless action is taken in more and more communities,' warned Sweet.
        Using evidence gleaned from tidal gauges and satellite imagery, as well as models from the most recent United Nations report on climate change, the NOAA-led analysis provides decade-by-decade projections for sea-level rise for all U.S. states and territories over the next century and beyond.
        Thanks to methodological advances, the authors were able to make more definitive estimates than they did in a 2017 study on the topic, and this new information powers a number of tools, including the NOAA Sea-Level Rise Viewer designed to make "actionable climate data accessible to those who need it."
         Patterns will vary regionally due to changes in land and ocean height. According to the new report, residents of the Gulf Coast should anticipate 14 to 18 inches of sea-level rise, compared with 10 to 14 inches for the East Coast, eight to 10 inches for the Caribbean and northern Alaska, six to eight inches for the Hawaiian Islands, and four to eight inches for the West Coast.
        Kristina Dahl, a climate scientist with the Union of Concerned Scientists, told the
Post that research she and colleagues have conducted suggests that 10 to 12 inches of sea-level rise by 2050 would threaten approximately 140,000 homes with "chronic inundation," or flooding every other week on average."

         Alan Rappeport, "Climate Change an ‘Emerging Threat’ to U.S. Financial Stability, Regulators Say: The Financial Stability Oversight Council issued a formal warning on the economic damage that global warming could inflict," The New York Times, December 17, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/17/us/politics/climate-change-us-financial-threat.html, reported, "Federal regulators warned for the first time in an annual report to Congress on Friday that climate change was an “emerging threat” to the U.S. financial system, laying out how the costs associated with more hurricanes, wildfires and floods caused by global warming could lead to a cascade of damage throughout the economy.
        The Financial Stability Oversight Council, a group of top financial regulators led by the Treasury secretary, offered a grim assessment of how the fallout from rising temperatures could spread, hurting property values and saddling insurers, banks and pensions that are associated with the sector with heavy losses. The report follows a similar analysis of climate risk that the council released in October."

         The large number of wildfires in the Western U.S. have caused the convergence of dangerous concentrations of ozone and smoke in numerous communities around the country (Henry Fountain, "Harmful Pollutants Converge in the West ad Fires Worsen," The New York Times, January 6, 2021).


         Jon Queally, "World’s Most Destructive Climate Disasters of 2021 Cost Nearly $200 Billion," Truthout, December 27, 2021, https://truthout.org/articles/worlds-most-destructive-climate-disasters-of-2021-cost-nearly-200-billion/?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=25470fba-7589-4688-ad30-0f1ce18935d1, reported that the trend of huge and increasing costs of climate devastation continued in 2021, "The new report by Christian Aid — entitled “ Counting the Cost 2021: A Year of Climate Breakdown ” (https://www.christianaid.org.uk/resources/our-work/counting-cost-2021-year-climate-breakdown)— analyzed the 15 'most destructive climate disasters' around the world over the last twelve months of the year and found that the top 10 events alone, based mostly on losses documented by insurance claims, came to approximately $170 billion. With the next five smaller events assessed by the study not included in that total — and recognizing that the real costs are much higher overall than those available by insurance figures alone — the true figure is certainly much higher.
         In the United States, the Texas Winter Storm earlier this year that cost $23 billion came in as the third most destructive event worldwide in 2021 while the devastation of Hurricane Ida, totaling $65 billion across numerous states, took the number one spot. At $43 billion, extreme floods that hit European nations over the summer collectively represented the second-most costly disaster of the year.

         Brett Wilkins, "NOAA Report Shows 310 Climate-Linked Disasters Cost US Over $2 Trillion Since 1980: 'This report underscores the reality of how the climate crisis is already affecting people's lives and the economy." Common Dreams, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/01/10/noaa-report-shows-310-climate-linked-disasters-cost-us-over-2-trillion-1980, reported, "As new statistics published Monday by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration revealed the United States has sustained more than $2 trillion in damages wrought by over 300 weather and climate disasters since 1980, a leading economist specializing in equitable climate solutions reiterated the need for urgent action—starting with passing Democrats' flagship Build Back Better Act—to mitigate the planetary emergency.
         'Policymakers must take drastic actions to rein in global warming emissions across all sectors of the economy.'
         According to NOAA (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/overview ), there were 310 U.S. weather and climate disasters since 1980 whose inflation-adjusted costs each exceeded $1 billion, with total damages topping $2.155 trillion. Economic damages from last year's disasters alone exceeded $145 billion, making 2021 the third-costliest in the time period studied. These events claimed 688 human lives and injured scores more.
        'The sobering power of NOAA's annual data on billion-dollar disasters highlights a worsening and undeniable trend," Rachel Cleetus, policy director and lead economist for the Climate and Energy Program at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), said in a statement. 'This report underscores the reality of how the climate crisis is already affecting people's lives and the economy."

         Henry Fountain, "Air Pollution Can Mean More, or Fewer, Hurricanes. It Depends Where You Live: Smog from factories and cars has led to more storms in the Atlantic Ocean, but fewer in the Pacific. A new study explains why," The New York Times, May 12, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/11/climate/air-pollution-hurricanes.html, reported, " Global warming can affect hurricanes, in part because a warmer ocean provides more energy to fuel them. But it’s not the only factor in play: A study released on Wednesday confirms that, for the frequency of hurricanes, the effects of particulate air pollution are even greater.
        Over the past four decades, the new research shows, the decline in pollution in the form of tiny aerosol particles from transportation, energy production and industry in North America and Europe was responsible for the increased numbers of hurricanes and other tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic
." The reverse has been true with more particle pollution in parts of Asia in recent years.        

        The Washington Post visualized the ways different climate policies could speed " Europe’s transition away from Russian gas," The Washington Post, March 24, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-solutions/interactive/2022/europe-ban-russian-oil-gas-climate/?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220325&instance_id=56747&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=86590&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927. The article discusses a variety of policies that could facilitate the European Union from transitioning from fossil fuels to green energy.

        Lois Parshley, "Europe Rethinks Its Reliance on Burning Wood for Electricity: A new proposal would significantly rewrite E.U. rules on renewable energy, ending subsidies for biomass like wood pellets," The New York Times, May 17, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/17/climate/eu-burning-wood-electricity.html, reported, " In recent years, Europe’s power plants have slashed their use of coal by burning something else instead: Millions of tons of wood, much of it imported from the United States." Greenhouse emissions from biomass were not counted toward Europe's greenhouse gas emissions in terms of reaching goals for their reduction.
        "Late Tuesday in Brussels, a committee of the European Parliament voted to make substantial changes to both how the union subsidizes biomass, and how it counts emissions from burning it — policies with major consequences if passed by the full Parliament. It’s part of a broad package of climate policies that would alter not only the way Europe generates electricity in coming years, but also how the European Union meets its targets for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions." Most biomass subsidies would end, their emissions would be counted in the E.U.'s total.

         Julia Conley, "Within Decade, Planet's Natural World Facing Largest Mass Extinction Event Since Dinosaurs: Latest analysis by World Wildlife Fund warns humanity—possible "victim of it own lifestyle"—might ultimately be added to list of threatened species," Common Dreams, December 30, 2021, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2021/12/30/within-decade-planets-natural-world-facing-largest-mass-extinction-event-dinosaurs, reported, " Increasingly dire ecological damage and severe impacts of the climate crisis are pushing the natural world towards a mass extinction event unparalleled since the age of the dinosaurs, conservationists in Germany warned this week, with humanity possibly facing self-annihilation if behaviors do not change.
        Releasing its annual "Winners and Losers" list (https://www.wwf.de/2021/dezember/gewinner-und-verlierer-2021) on Wednesday, the World Wildlife Fund's German branch said 40,000 of the 142,500 species listed on the Red List of Threatened Species (https://www.iucnredlist.org) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are .threatened with extinction.'
         The Red List is now longer than it has ever been since the IUCN began cataloging threatened species in 1964.
         More than 40% of amphibians, 27% of shark and ray species, a third of reef building corals, and more than a quarter of all mammals on the Red List are threatened with extinction.
         At the current rate of species loss, 'around one million species could go extinct within the next decade—which would be the largest mass extinction event since the end of the dinosaur age,' WWF Germany said in a statement.
        With planet-heating atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions reaching a record high this year—contributing to drought, habitat loss, extreme weather, and health problems in humans as well as other species—the organization noted that humans should view the extinction crisis as one that could affect them directly.
        'Species conservation is no longer just about defeating an environmental problem, but is rather about the question of whether or not humanity will eventually end up on the Red List in an endangered category—and thereby become a victim of its own lifestyle,' WWF Germany director Eberhard Brandes said.
        'If the earth is sick, so will the people [be],' he added, 'because we depend on vital ecosystems and biodiversity for our own safe and healthy life.'
        The 'losers' on the WWF's list include the polar bear, which is already suffering from the erosion of its Arctic habitat as the northern region becomes warmer. The Arctic Ocean could be completely free of ice by 2035 at the current rate of loss, making it increasingly difficult for the bears to find food.
        Sharks and rays also made the list, the result of overfishing, habitat loss, and the climate crisis. A third of all sharks and rays in the oceans were classified as threatened in 2021, the WWF said.
        African forest elephants have been considered 'critically endangered' for the first time this year, as their population in Central and West Africa has plummeted by 86% in the past three decades.
         The inclusion of 40,000 species on the IUCN's list of threatened species represents a major acceleration of biodiversity loss. In 2010, 17,300 species were considered to be under threat, according to The Guardian.
        The WWF's list of 'winners' this year includes bearded vultures, which have benefited from a resettlement program in the last 30 years that's resulted in more than 300 of the birds now living in the Alpine region; the Iberian lynx, whose population has increased more than tenfold in the past 18 years; and Siamese crocodiles in Cambodia. Eight young crocodiles were found by researchers this year, marking the first time in more than a decade that the species has reproduced in nature.
         'The winners of the list show that there are still opportunities for species protection,' said Brandes. 'f we implement effective nature conservation measures, we can protect plants, animals and, ultimately, the climate.'"
        Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."

         Catrin Einhorn, "Warning on Mass Extinction of Sea Life: ‘An Oh My God Moment’: A new study finds that if fossil fuel emissions continue apace, the oceans could experience a mass extinction by 2300. There is still time to avoid it," The New York Times, April 28, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/28/climate/global-warming-ocean-extinctions.html, reported, "On Thursday they [scientists] published “Avoiding Ocean Mass Extinction From Climate Warming” (https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abe9039) in Science. It is the latest research that crystallizes the powerful yet paralyzed moment in which humanity finds itself. The choices made today regarding greenhouse gas emissions stand to affect the very future of life on Earth, even though the worst impacts may still feel far away.
         Under the high emissions scenario that the scientists modeled, in which pollution from the burning of fossil fuels continues to climb, warming would trigger ocean species loss by 2300 that was on par with the five mass extinctions in Earth’s past. The last of those wiped out the dinosaurs."

         Catrin Einhorn and Nadja Popovich, " This Map Shows Where Biodiversity Is Most at Risk in America," The New York Times, March 3, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2022/03/03/climate/biodiversity-map.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220304&instance_id=54896&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=84679&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, offered, "Let your eyes wander to the areas of this map [in The New York Times, seen with state by state details at the above web address] that deepen into red. They are the places in the lower 48 United States most likely to have plants and animals at high risk of global extinction.

        It’s the most detailed map of its kind so far. Animals like the black-footed ferret and California condor are represented, but so are groups often left out of such analyses: species of bees, butterflies, fish, mussels, crayfish and flowering plants. Not included are gray wolves, grizzly bears and other wildlife not at risk of global extinction.
        Maps like these offer a valuable tool to officials and conservationists who are scrambling to protect biodiversity. That work is critical, because scientists say humans are speeding extinction at a disastrous pace (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/06/climate/humans-are-speeding-extinction-and-altering-the-natural-world-at-an-unprecedented-pace.html)."

         Carl Zimmer, "Climate Change Will Accelerate Viral Spillovers, Study Finds: In a warming world, bats in Southeast Asia will be especially prone to spreading viruses to other mammals, researchers found," The New York Times, April 28, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/28/science/climate-change-virus-spillover.html, reported, " Over the next 50 years, climate change will drive thousands of viruses to jump from one species of mammal to another, according to a study (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04788-w) published in Nature on Thursday. The shuffling of viruses among animals may increase the risk that one will jump into humans and cause a new pandemic, the researchers said.
        Scientists have long warned that a warming planet may increase the burden of diseases. Malaria , for example, is expected to spread as the mosquitoes that carry it expand their range into warming regions. But climate change might also usher in entirely new diseases, by allowing pathogens to move into new host species."

        "U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Bounced Back Sharply in 2021: Emissions rose 6 percent last year after a record 10 percent decline in 2020, fueled by a rise in coal power and truck traffic as the U.S. economy rebounded from the pandemic," The New York Times, January 10, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/10/climate/emissions-pandemic-rebound.html, reported, "America’s greenhouse gas emissions from energy and industry rose 6.2 percent in 2021 as the economy began recovering from pandemic lows and the nation’s coal plants roared back to life, according to a preliminary estimate published Monday by the Rhodium Group (https://rhg.com/research/preliminary-us-emissions-2021/)."

        Anna Penner, "Despite Its Politics, Texas Leads US in Renewable Energy Projects," World War Zero, February 23rd 2022, https://worldwarzero.com/magazine/2022/02/despite-its-politics-texas-leads-us-in-renewable-energy-projects/?emci=811b50b8-da94-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&emdi=d7691697-ea94-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&ceid=1763602, reported, "According to a report issued by American Clean Power Association(ACP), Texas is leading the country in renewable energy projects. During 2021, the state had 7,352 megawatts (MW) of new wind, solar, and energy storage projects come online, as reported by Inside Climate News. The runner-up, California, brought 2,697 MW online. Texas also led the rankings for future renewable energy projects, having a near 20,000 MW under construction or in advanced development.
         PBS: Why Oil Country is Turning to Wind Power , May 13, 2021.
        France 24:
Texas blown away by wind power , June 14, 2021.
         Why This Matters
         The US surpassed 200 Gigawatts (GW) of clean power capacity in 2021, but ACP said the landmark is eclipsed by the slowing pace of deployment which was down 3% from 2020, driven by legislative uncertainty, supply chain disruptions, and a battle over solar panels from Asia. According to Heather Zichal, ACP CEO, "Although the US has reached this incredible achievement, more needs to be done at a faster pace to reach the climate goals and targets our country needs to achieve." The country's combined 27.7 GW of clean energy is only 45% of what is required for the power sector to become emissions-free.
         Wind power in the US is set to surpass other renewables despite policy uncertainty with the expiration of tax credits for wind projects. Last year, the wind industry blew past previous milestones as growth in both onshore and offshore projects was coupled with falling wind energy costs. According to the ACP, of the 45,077 MW of operational clean power in Texas, 6,145 MW was onshore wind power.
         In 2021, renewables made up 95% of new power capacity worldwide. These numbers put renewables on track to surpass fossil fuels and nuclear energy by 2026, but the growth rate is still less than half of what is needed to" prevent a horrendous climate change catastrophe.

         Raymond Zhong, "2021 Was Earth’s Fifth-Hottest Year, Scientists Say: The finding, by European researchers, fits a clear warming trend: The seven hottest years on record have been the past seven," The New York Times, January 10, 2022, reported, Last year was Earth’s fifth hottest on record, European scientists announced on Monday. But the fact that the worldwide average temperature didn’t beat the record is hardly reason to stop worrying about global warming’s grip on the planet, they said.
        Not when both the United States and Europe had their warmest summers on the books. Not when higher temperatures around the Arctic caused it to rain for the first time at the Greenland ice sheet’s normally frigid summit," and also with the last seven years the hottest ever recorded.

         Kenny Stancil, "Oceans Hotter in 2021 Than Any Time in Recorded History: 'Ocean warming keeps breaking records, which is a reminder that the world needs action to combat climate change,'" Common Dreams,
January 11, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/01/11/oceans-hotter-2021-any-time-recorded-history, reported, "New research out Tuesday (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00376-022-1461-3) shows that the world's oceans last year were hotter than they've ever been in recorded history—part of a long-term warming trend driven primarily by planet-wrecking fossil fuel emissions.
        'This finding really underscores the urgency of acting on climate now.'
        According to an annual study published in the peer-reviewed journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences(https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00376-022-1461-3), the past five years have been the five hottest for Earth's oceans since measurements began in the late 1950s.
         Since the late 1980s, oceans have been warming eight times faster than they did during the preceding decades, and 2021 marked the third consecutive year in which the previous record for annual energy absorption was shattered. These trends, the paper makes clear, are due to 'an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.'"

         The world's peat bogs are a major carbon sink, but are in danger, from drying up from heat and human development. When damaged and destroyed - as many have been - they release huge amounts of CO 2 while ceasing to pull carbon dioxide out of the air (Sabrina Imbler, "Meet Peat, the Unsung Hero of Carbon Capture," The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2022/02/21/headway/peat-carbon-climate-change.html).

         Maxine Joselow, "Court ruling on social cost of carbon upends Biden’s climate plans: The Interior Department has paused oil and gas lease sales on public lands after a federal judge barred the government from considering climate damages in major decisions," The Washington Post, February 22, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2022/02/21/social-cost-of-carbon-biden/, reported, that the February 11, 2022 " temporary injunction issued by a Louisiana Federal District court judge appointed by Trump "that bars the Biden administration from accounting for the real-world costs of climate change has created temporary chaos at federal agencies, upending everything from planned oil and gas lease sales to infrastructure spending."
        The court decision has, at least temporarily, "blocked the Biden administration from using a higher estimate for the damage that each additional ton of greenhouse gas pollution causes society. This formula, called the social cost of carbon, applies to consequential decisions affecting fossil fuel extraction on public lands, infrastructure projects and even international climate talks." The Justice Department intends to appeal the injunction. If the lower court is overruled, using the higher social cost could impact a wide range of decisions concerning everything from federal purchasing to the prices charged for federal leases and permits, providing an economic lever to reducing greenhouse gas pollution and enhancing the move to clean energy.

         Jacob Fischler, "White House methane plan funds orphan well cleanup, rewards reduced farm emissions: Haaland says the US must act with urgency on over 100,000 wells; NM eligible for $44 million to cap them," SourceNM, February 2, 2022, https://sourcenm.com/2022/02/02/white-house-methane-plan-funds-orphan-well-cleanup-rewards-reduced-farm-emissions/, reported, " The federal government will provide $1.15 billion this year to help states cap defunct oil and gas wells, the White House said Monday, as part of a broad plan to reduce methane emissions."
        "The plan also includes new Environmental Protection Agency regulations and an Agriculture Department incentive program for farmers to reduce or capture methane."

         Jake Johnson, "'We Are in a Climate Emergency': Late-December Wildfires Ravage Colorado," "None of this is normal," said Colorado state Rep. Leslie Herod. 'We are not OK,'" Common Dreams, December 31, 2021, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2021/12/31/we-are-climate-emergency-late-december-wildfires-ravage-colorado, reported on very much out of traditional fire season - but the new normal - wildfires south of Boulder CO, " Tens of thousands of Coloradans were forced to flee their homes Thursday as two fast-moving wildfires—whipped up by wind gusts reaching 110 mph—tore through communities just outside of Denver, engulfing entire neighborhoods in flames and destroying hundreds of buildings."
        First reports indicate that between 500 and 1000 homes were destroyed in what became an urban fire, blasting through the towns of Louisville and Superior, CO. Fortunately there were no deaths due to rapid evacuation (Charlie Brennan, Shay Castle, Mitch Smith and Jack Healy, "Record-Setting Colorado Fires Destroyed More Than 500 Homes : Unlike fires in mountain wilderness, which often burn over the course of weeks, the destruction on Thursday played out in minutes and hours," The New York Times, January 1, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/31/us/colorado-marshall-fire.html).

         The risk to homes in the U.S., and the number of homes at risk, is continuing to rise as wildfires increase, spreading to new areas, even into urban areas, and people continue to build in high-risk areas. Part of the problem on houses being built in high risk areas, is that unlike with flooding, the U.S. government does not calculate and publicize risk. Data on the growing risk with details by location is in, Christopher Flavelle and Nadja Popovich, "Here Are the Wildfire Risks to Homes Across the Lower 48 States," The New York Times, May 16, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2022/05/16/climate/wildfire-risk-map-properties.html).

         Sophie Kasakove and Rick Rojas, "Heat Records Fall Across a Sweltering Nation: In much of the country, it feels like midsummer this weekend. And It’s Not Even Memorial Day Yet," The New York Times, May 22, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/live/2022/05/21/us/weather-east-coast-heat#heat-records, reported, " The heat across much of the country is not normal for this time of year.
        Cities across a wide swath of the country tied or broke heat records on Saturday as blazing heat and humidity roasted states from Texas to Massachusetts, placing more than 38 million Americans
under a heat advisory in the hottest hours of the day.
        Records fell in places like Austin, Texas, which hit 99 degrees at its airport and 100 at Camp Mabry; Vicksburg, Miss., which reached 98 degrees; and Richmond, Va., where the thermometer climbed to 95. Philadelphia tied its record at 95 degrees, as did Worcester, Mass., where temperatures reached 88.
"

         Derrick Bryson Taylor, Eduardo Medina and Jesus Jiménez, "Heavy Winter Storm Hits D.C. Area and Knocks Out Power Across Southeast: At least three people were killed and more than half a million customers were without electricity on Monday because of the storm. Federal government offices in the area were closed because of the storm," January 4, 2022, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/03/us/sleet-snow-forecast.html, reported, " The storm shut down part of Interstate 95, one of the country’s busiest travel corridors.
        Federal government offices and schools in the Washington, D.C., area were closed on Monday as the region received its first significant snowfall of the season, part of a winter storm that left at least three dead and more than half a million customers without power as it moved up the East Coast
."

        "In Icy Conditions, the Northeast Starts Digging Out: With snowplows and shovels, parts of Massachusetts and New York were clearing away piles of snow amid frigid wind chills," The New York Times, January 30, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/30/us/northeast-snow-storm-wind-chills.html, reported, "Twenty miles south of Boston, homeowners took to their driveways on Sunday morning with shovels, snowblowers and a little civic pride. Excavating cars that could hardly be seen under mountainous piles of dense snow, Stoughton residents faced the chilly task of digging out from a record-breaking [U.S. Northeast] winter storm, but at least they had some bragging rights.
        Stoughton saw the most snowfall — 30.9 inches — of any city or town in the Northeast during the storm, according to the National Weather Service."

        A huge storm, stretching from well into Mexico to a good ways into Canada swept across the U.S., in early February 2021, causing a good deal of disruption as it moved east. By Jesus Jiménez and Sophie Kasakove, "A Tenacious Winter Storm Moves Across the Northeast:        The three-day storm left grounded planes and power outages across a 2,000-mile stretch of the country. A fatal crash in Texas stranded drivers for 10 hours on an icy highway'" The New York Times, February 4, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/04/us/winter-storm-snow-ice-northeast.html, reported, "A tenacious winter storm that stranded travelers, closed schools and snarled roadways as it swept from New Mexico to New England this week continued to bring hazardous weather on Friday, dumping a mix of snow, sleet and ice on parts of the Northeast.
        Heavy snow of more than a foot fell in northern parts of New York and New England, with ice the primary concern farther south."

        Margery A. Beck And Margaret Stafford, "At least 5 dead as Midwest rocked by hurricane-force winds," Associated Press, December 16, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/tornadoes-iowa-nebraska-storms-kansas-ee9378aae1cb74911e0f9842a01ccaa1, reported, " At least five people died as a powerful and extremely unusual storm system swept across the Great Plains and Midwest amid unseasonably warm temperatures, spawning hurricane-force winds and possible tornadoes in Nebraska, Iowa and Minnesota."

         Luke Vander Ploeg and Mitch Smith, "Two Killed, Dozens Injured in Rare Northern Michigan Tornado," The New York Times, May 21, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/21/us/gaylord-michigan-tornado.html, reported that in an event most unusual for the area, "A tornado that killed at least two people and injured dozens of others dropped out of the sky in far northern Michigan on Friday and onto a mobile home park before tearing a three-block hole through the small city of Gaylord."

        As more extremely large and strong tornados hit the U.S. with climate change: Ian Livingston, "Ferocious tornado strikes Andover, Kan., causing severe damage," Washington Post, April 30, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/weather/2022/04/29/andover-tornado-kansas-outbreak/, reported, " An outbreak of severe storms swept through the eastern half of Kansas and Nebraska Friday, unleashing tornadoes, destructive wind gusts and massive hail in both states.
        A major tornado developed just before sunset in the eastern Wichita suburbs before entering the city of Andover, where about 50 to 100 homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed. Local ABC affiliate KAKE reported several injuries from the twister. The Andover fire chief reported no deaths."

         In March, that used to be before fire season began, hot dry weather led to more than 52,000 acres in Texas being consumed by wildfires, with more fires expected (David Montgomery, "Crews Battle Deadly Fires as Texas Braces for More, "The World Can't Keep Fishing Like This Century," The New York Times, March 20, 2022).

         Henry Fountain, "How Bad Is the Western Drought? Worst in 12 Centuries, Study Finds: Fueled by climate change, the drought that started in 2000 is now the driest two decades since 800 A.D.," The New York Times, February 14, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/climate/western-drought-megadrought.html, reported, " The megadrought in the American Southwest has become so severe that it’s now the driest two decades in the region in at least 1,200 years, scientists said Monday, and climate change is largely responsible.
        The drought, which began in 2000 and has reduced water supplies, devastated farmers and ranchers and helped fuel wildfires across the region, had previously been considered the worst in 500 years, according to the researchers."

        As fire season begins earlier and earlier, and soon will be year round: Johnny Diaz, "New Mexico Wildfire Leaves 2 Dead and 200 Structures Damaged: The victims, an older couple who had tried to evacuate, were found Wednesday inside a burned home in the village of Ruidoso, N.M., the authorities said," The New York Times, April 14, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/14/us/new-mexico-wildfire-deaths.htmlm, reported, "Two people were killed in a large springtime wildfire in New Mexico that has burned more than 5,000 acres in the Sierra Blanca mountain range, the authorities said on Wednesday." As of April 14, the continuing fire had damaged some 200 structures."

         Jack Healy, "Arizona Wildfires Seize on Chaotic Winds and Parched Forests: An uncontained springtime blaze north of Flagstaff, along with smaller fires in New Mexico and Colorado, has been a harsh reminder that fire season might now be year- round," The New York Times, April 20, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/20/us/wildfire-arizona-flagstaff-tunnel.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220422&instance_id=59208&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=89986&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Wind-driven springtime wildfires are tearing through parched evergreens and brush across Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado, burning scores of homes and forcing thousands of people to flee during a fire season that is growing longer and more destructive as climate change dries out the West.
        In northern Arizona, the fast-moving Tunnel fire was burning through an expanse of forest and rural homes about 14 miles northeast of the college town of Flagstaff. The fire, whose cause is under investigation,
swelled to more than 19,700 acres by Wednesday and had destroyed 25 buildings, according to a spokesman for the Coconino County Sheriff’s Office."
         In Colorado, at the same time, a fire in the San Luis Valley had destroyed or damaged at least 16 homes as it burned through the town of Monte Vista.
         As of Earth Day, April 22, 2022, in excess of 830,000 acres had already been burned over, as fires continued to arise and spread.

        As of April 24, 2022, wildfires in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado Nebraska and Texas had consumed over 130,000 acres, killed at least one person and caused evacuation of more than 4000 homes, with the fires very little contained. In Arizona, the Tunnel Fire had destroyed at least 25 homes and burned through the entire Sunset Crater Volcanic National Monument. Wildfires had also been a major problem in California (Jesus Jimenez, "Wildfires Burn More than 100,000 Acres in Three States," The New York Times, April 25, 2022).
        Julia Goldberg, " Strong Winds Keep Fueling New Mexico Wildfire: A blaze that grew significantly over the weekend has residents bracing for more evacuations," The New York Times, May 1, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/01/us/new-mexico-wildfire.html, reported, " High winds in northern New Mexico on Sunday once again posed a stiff challenge to crews battling a large wildfire that grew significantly over the weekend.
        The Hermits Peak/Calf Canyon fire east of Santa Fe, which began as two fires before merging a week ago, had burned almost 104,000 acres, or more than 160 square miles
, by Sunday, up from about 75,000 acres on Friday. It was 30 percent contained, fire officials said, with smoke from that fire and another — the Cerro Pelado fire in Jemez Springs, roughly 40 miles west of Santa Fe — permeating much of the northern part of the state." Poor air quality from smoke is a major problem in some locations.
        By May 5 the continuing to expand fire had consumed 165,000 square miles. Natural disasters have bo th short and long term consequences. One impact, in this case, is the disruption of Hispanic American communities and culture that have been in place since the 1500s ( Simon Romero, " ‘Burning Down a Way of Life’: Wildfire Rips Through a Hispanic Bastion: One of the largest wildfires in New Mexico’s history is raging through a region where the culture stretches back longer than the United States has existed," The New York Times, May 6, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/05/us/new-mexico-wildfires.html).

         Fires around Flagstaff Arizona, including on the Navajo reservation, continued to be a serious problem through the spring of 2022. As of June 15, the Pipeline Fire North of Flagstaff, just 3% contained, had consumed 22,000 acres and the Haywire Fire in excess of 4000 acres. The Haywood Fire merged with the Double Fire, becoming 5065 acres. There were evacuations, including on the Navajo reservation, with fire crews working to protect communities, and deflect the fire away from the sacred San Francisco Peaks, crossing burn scars from the recent Tunnel Fire and the 2010 Schultz Fire (Krista Allen, "'Here we go again,' Pipeline Fire north of Flagstaff forces evacuations," Navajo Times, June 16, 2022).

        The Southwestern U.S. suffered record heat for a number of days in mid-June, 2022, Matthew Cappucci, "Record heat to peak in U.S. through Saturday before swelling to the east," Washington Post, June 10, 2022).

        "A s the Great Salt Lake Dries Up, Utah Faces 'An Environmental Nuclear Bomb' (yahoo.com) 304," Slash Dot, Posted by Editor David, June 13, 2022, https://news.slashdot.org/story/22/06/13/0323243/as-the-great-salt-lake-dries-up-utah-faces-an-environmental-nuclear-bombm reported, "' If the Great Salt Lake, which has already shrunk by two-thirds, continues to dry up, here's what's in store.' The lake's flies and brine shrimp would die off — scientists warn it could start as soon as this summer — threatening the 10 million migratory birds that stop at the lake annually to feed on the tiny creatures. Ski conditions at the resorts above Salt Lake City, a vital source of revenue, would deteriorate. The lucrative extraction of magnesium and other minerals from the lake could stop.
        Most alarming, the air surrounding Salt Lake City would occasionally turn poisonous.
         The lake bed contains high levels of arsenic and as more of it becomes exposed, wind storms carry that arsenic into the lungs of nearby residents, who make up three-quarters of Utah's population. 'We have this potential environmental nuclear bomb that's going to go off if we don't take some pretty dramatic action,' said Joel Ferry, a Republican state lawmaker and rancher who lives on the north side of the lake.
        As climate change continues to cause record-breaking drought, there are no easy solutions. Saving the Great Salt Lake would require letting more snowmelt from the mountains flow to the lake, which means less water for residents and farmers. That would threaten the region's breakneck population growth and high-value agriculture — something state leaders seem reluctant to do. Utah's dilemma raises a core question as the country heats up: How quickly are Americans willing to adapt to the effects of climate change, even as those effects become urgent, obvious, and potentially catastrophic...?"

         A record rainfall, in mid-June 2022, forced the closure of Yellowstone National Park while causing heavy flooding over a wide area, including flooding a hospital and isolating many areas (Natalie B. Compton, "Yellowstone shuts down after record rainfall ravages roads," Washington Post, June 13, 2022; and NPR, All Things Considered, June 14, 2022).

         Sophie Kasakove, "Wildfire in Big Sur Forces Residents to Evacuate: A late-season blaze that started on Friday grew to 1,000 acres in the scenic region of California," The New York Times, January 24, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/22/us/colorado-fire-big-sur-california.html, reported that in a time that used to be outside California wildfire season, in an area with little or no wildfire history, " Over 500 residents in the Big Sur area in California were told to evacuate Friday night as a brush fire spread through the mountainous coastal region known for its winding turns and dramatic cliffs.
        The fire was 'stubbornly active overnight,' according to the National Weather Service, as intense, gusty winds of up to 50 miles per hour blew the flames erratically along the area’s steep canyons. By Saturday morning, the fire — known as the Colorado fire — grew to 1,000 acres (down from an earlier estimate of 1,500 acres) after starting a little after 5 p.m. on Friday in the Palo Colorado Canyon area. Just one structure had burned by Saturday. The cause of the fire, which on Saturday evening was 20 percent contained, is under investigation."

         Wildfire season now almost year round, has been very bas once again in California. In the south, about 30 miles from San Bernardino, a new wildfire exploded to over 1000 acres in a day, in June, prompting evaluation. At that time there were about 30 active wild fires in five western states that had burned more than 1 million acres," The New York Times, June 14, 2022).

        With climate change drying out California, Rachel Ramirez, "California is in a water crisis, yet usage is way up. Officials are focused on the wrong problem, advocates say," CNN, May 15, 2022, https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/15/us/california-water-usage-increase-drought-climate/index.html, reported, " California is facing a crisis. Not only are its reservoirs already at critically low levels due to unrelenting drought , residents and businesses across the state are also using more water now than they have in seven years, despite Gov. Gavin Newsom's efforts to encourage just the opposite." A piece of the problem is that many people and businesses in cities do not comprehend the extent of the water crisis and have continued to do more, despite the Governor and other officials strong requests for people to cut water use.
        "But advocates say government officials are also focusing on the wrong approach. They say voluntary residential water cuts are not the solution, and that restrictions should be mandated for businesses and industries that use the vast majority of the state's water."

         Canada and some other nations have not been reporting greenhouse gas emissions from wild fires and other "natural causes" as part of the climate impacting emissions of their countries ( Amanda Coletta, Chris Mooney, Brady Dennis, Naema Ahmed and John Muyskens, "INVISIBLE: A megafire raged for 3
months. No one’s on the
hook for its emissions," Washington Post, April 20, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/interactive/2022/elephant-hill-emissions-canada/?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220422&instance_id=59208&itid=lk_interstitial_manual_40&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=89986&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927).

        The Pacific Northwest, from Washington - including Seattle - through Oregon well into California experienced record Snows, with heavy rains further south and in the lower altitudes in the last week pf December 2021 ( Neil Vigdor, "Snow Closed the Highways. GPS Mapped a Harrowing Detour in the Sierra Nevada: Public safety officials warned that alternate routes offered by apps like Google Maps and Waze don’t always take into account hazards to drivers," The New York Times, December 31, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/31/us/google-maps-waze-sierra-nevada-snow.html).

        Hotter temperatures in late spring and summer in the U.S. as well as elsewhere, brought an increase in sometimes serious health problems and visits to emergency rooms, particularly for children (Winston Choi-Schagrin, "Hotter Temperatures Lead to E.R. Visits for Children," The New York Times, January 20, 2022).        

        Jose de Jesus Cortes,         "Storm Agatha kills 3 in southern Jose de Jesus Cortes, Mexico; heavy rainfall to continue," Reuters, May 31, https://www.reuters.com/world/americas/mexico-scrambles-clear-debris-storm-agatha-weakens-along-southern-coast-2022-05-31/, reported, " At least three people were confirmed dead and at least five others reported missing on Tuesday after record-breaking storm Agatha battered southern Mexico, local authorities said on Tuesday.
        Heavy rainfall in the region is expected to continue, and the remnants of the storm are likely to form a tropical depression by Friday, the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) said.

         A month's worth of rain falling in one night north of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil caused major mudslides killing at least 78 people, in February 2022 (Ana Ionova, "78 Killed as Mudslides Ravage Region in Brazil ," The New York Times, February 17, 2022).

        "Death toll in Brazilian floods rises to 106, 10 still missing," Reuters, May 31, https://www.reuters.com/world/americas/death-toll-brazilian-floods-rises-106-10-still-missing-2022-06-01/, reported, " At least 106 people have died and 10 are still missing in Brazil, the government said on Tuesday, as heavy rains tore through urban towns in the northeastern part of the country for a sixth consecutive day.
        The governor of the northeastern state of Pernambuco, Paulo Camara, in an interview with local media, said the government's priority was to find those still missing amid mudslides and major flooding."
        "The National Civil Defense said on Twitter that an alert was in place for the 'very high' possibility of more flooding in Pernambuco, including its capital, Recife."

        Flávia Milhorance, "Record Floods Stun Brazil’s Northeast, Killing at Least 20: In northeast Brazil, local officials say they have never before seen flooding on this scale. Tens of thousands were forced to flee their homes," The New York Times, December 28, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/28/world/americas/brazil-floods-climate-change.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20211229&instance_id=48983&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=78211&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " At least 20 people have been killed and more than 50,000 driven from their homes by calamitous floods sweeping through northeastern Brazil, the authorities said Tuesday."
        “ 'We’ve had other floods, other disasters with deaths, but nothing, absolutely nothing, with this territorial extension, with this number of cities hit at the same time and with the number of people impacted by this storm,' said Rui Costa, the governor of Bahia State."

        "Paraguay’s drought hits biodiversity, Indigenous communities the hardest," Mongabay,
by Maxwell Radwin on 3 February 3 2022, https://news.mongabay.com/2022/02/paraguays-drought-hits-biodiversity-indigenous-communities-the-hardest/, reported, "Record-breaking heat waves in Paraguay have led to water shortages and forest fires that threaten local biodiversity and many of the Indigenous communities who steward it.
         Indigenous groups like the Aché and Ava Guaraní have lost their crops and likely face food insecurity should the drought continue throughout 2022.
         Turtles, aquatic mammals and fish that usually occupy now-dried-up wetlands have been forced into the major rivers, where they face a greater threat from overfishing."

        "Heavy Snow Strands Motorists in Greece and Turkey: In areas more used to dealing with extreme heat, blizzard conditions caused chaos on roads and at airports," The New York Times, January 25, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/25/world/europe/greece-turkey-snow.html, reported, " A rare heavy snowfall in the Mediterranean had emergency services scrambling on Tuesday to rescue people stranded in their cars, some for more than 20 hours, and caused transportation chaos and power outages in Greece and Turkey.
        Heavy snow fell for more than 12 hours on Monday, covering the Greek capital, where the snow was a foot deep in parts, as well as several Aegean islands. Parts of Turkey were also blanketed."

         Isabella Kwai, "Iraqis Choke Under a Blanket of Dust as Sandstorms Sweep the Country: Orange skies signaled yet another dusty day for millions of Iraqis. It was the seventh such storm in recent months, and experts say more are on the way," The New York Times, May 5, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/05/world/middleeast/iraq-sandstorms-climate.html, reported on unprecedented damaging weather in Iraq. "An unrelenting spate of sandstorms in Iraq this year has grounded flights, blanketed cities and towns in orange dust and sent hundreds of Iraqis to hospitals for respiratory problems, according to Iraqi state media.
        For millions of people across Iraq on Thursday, orange skies signaled yet another dusty day — the seventh such sandstorm in recent months."

         Vignesh Radhakrishnan, Jasmin Nihalani, Vikas Vasudeva, "Data, Heat wave in Punjab may curtail India’s wheat exports," The Hindu, April 22, 2022, https://www.thehindu.com/data/data-heat-wave-in-punjab-may-curtail-indias-wheat-exports/article65345049.ece?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220422&instance_id=59208&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=89986&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927," reported, " Extreme levels of heat in Punjab and the accelerating local prices may potentially hurt India’s wheat export this year
        At a time when India is looking to fill the world’s wheat granaries depleted by the Ukraine-Russia war, two new developments in Punjab may potentially reduce its export levels this year. Firstly, evidence from Punjab shows that the wheat arrivals in mandis have been 20% lower this year compared to 2021. The primary reason behind the reduction is the extreme levels of heat. The average temperature in April has been consistently above the 40°C mark across Punjab. This has reduced the wheat yield significantly this year. Secondly, the local prices of wheat and wheat flour are accelerating. These two factors may dampen India’s wheat export plans given that India may prioritise local availability of wheat while also aiming to cool down the market prices."

         Kenny Stancil, "IPCC Scientist Warns India-Pakistan Record Temps 'Testing Limits of Human Survivability': 'Fossil fuels did this,' said one climate justice campaigner. 'Unless we ditch fossil fuels immediately in favor of a just, renewable-energy based system, heatwaves like this one will continue to become more intense and more frequent,'" Common Dreams, May 2, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/05/02/ipcc-scientist-warns-india-pakistan-record-temps-testing-limits-human-survivability, reported, " As record-breaking temperatures continue to pummel the Indian subcontinent— endangering the lives of millions of people and scorching crops amid a global food crisis—climate scientists and activists are warning that deadly public health crises of this sort will only grow worse as long as societies keep burning fossil fuels.
        'Governments can no longer approve fossil fuel projects, and financial institutions can no longer fund them, without our suffering on their hands.'
        'This heatwave is definitely unprecedented,' Chandni Singh, senior researcher at the Indian Institute for Human Settlements and a lead author at the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), told CNN on Monday. 'We have seen a change in its intensity, its arrival time, and duration.'
        Although heatwaves are common in India, especially in May and June, overpowering temperatures arrived several weeks earlier than usual this year—a clear manifestation of the fossil fuel-driven climate emergency, according to Clare Nullis, an official at the World Meteorological Organization.
        As CNN reported:
         'The average maximum temperature for northwest and central India in April was the highest since records began 122 years ago, reaching 35.9º and 37.78ºC (96.62º and 100ºF) respectively, according to the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD).
Last month, New Delhi saw seven consecutive days over 40ºC (104ºF), three degrees above the average temperature for the month of April
,' according to CNN meteorologists. In some states, the heat closed schools, damaged crops, and put pressure on energy supplies, as officials warned residents to remain indoors and keep hydrated.
         The heatwave has also been felt by India's neighbor Pakistan, where the cities of Jacobabad and Sibi in the country's southeastern Sindh province recorded highs of 47ºC (116.6ºF) on Friday, according to data shared with CNN by Pakistan's Meteorological Department (PMD). According to the PMD, this was the highest temperature recorded in any city in the Northern Hemisphere on that day.
        'This is t he first time in decades that Pakistan is experiencing what many call a 'spring-less year,' Pakistan's Minister of Climate Change, Sherry Rehman said in a statement.
         April's record-shattering temperatures came on the heels of India's hottest March in more than a century and one of its driest. Meanwhile, the region's annual monsoon season is still weeks away.
        'This is what climate experts predicted and it will have cascading impacts on health,' said Singh. 'This heatwave is testing the limits of human survivability.'"

         Henry Fountain, "Climate Change Fuels Heat Wave in India and Pakistan, Scientists Find: Warming since preindustrial times has made the extreme heat in South Asia, now in its third month, at least 30 times more likely, The New York Times, May 23, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/23/climate/india-pakistan-heat-wave-global-warming.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220524&instance_id=62250&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=93206&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Global warming has made the severe heat wave that has smothered much of Pakistan and India this spring hotter and much more likely to occur, climate scientists said Monday.
        They said that the chances of such a heat wave increased by at least 30 times since the 19th century, before widespread emissions of planet-warming gases began
. On average the heat wave is about 1 degree Celsius, or about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit, hotter than a similar event would have been in those preindustrial times, the researchers said."

         Karan Deep Singh and Saif Hasnat, "Millions Displaced and Dozens Dead in Flooding in India and Bangladesh: Heavy rains have washed away towns, villages and infrastructure, as extreme weather events become more common in South Asia.," The New York Times, May 22, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/22/world/asia/flooding-india-bangladesh.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220524&instance_id=62250&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=93206&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported that as climate change makes weather, including monsoons, in the region ever more extreme, "Heavy pre-monsoon rains in India and Bangladesh have washed away train stations, towns and villages, leaving millions of people homeless as extreme weather events, including heat waves , intense rainfall and floods, become more common in South Asia.
        More than 60 people have been killed in days of flooding, landslides and thunderstorms that have left many people without food and drinking water and have isolated them by cutting off the internet, according to officials."

         Jason Gutierrez, "Super Typhoon Rai Hits the Philippines, Forcing Thousands to Flee Flooding: Nearly 100,000 people in several regions were evacuated, and at least 17 people died," The New York Times, December 17, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/16/world/asia/super-typhoon-rai-odette-philippines.html, reported, " Typhoon Rai slammed into the southeastern part of the Philippines on Thursday, bringing heavy rains and flooding that displaced thousands over a large area. At least 17 people were killed, but the death toll was expected to rise.
        The typhoon, the 15th major weather disturbance to hit the country this year, intensified rapidly in the morning and was classified as a
super typhoon , with sustained winds of 120 miles per hour near the center and gusts of up to 168 miles per hour. The designation is similar to a Category 5 hurricane in the United States."
        The damage was not only severe, but especially widespread. The Philippine Climate Change Commission called for urgent local level action “to build community resilience against extreme climate-related events and minimize loss and damage.” The commission stated, “As the level of global warming continues to increase, these extreme weather events and other climate impacts are becoming severe, and may be irreversible, threatening to further set back our growth as a nation.”

         Khalid Bencherif, "How Climate Change Turned This Moroccan Village Into a Ghost Town: A Moroccan journalist returns to the oasis community where he grew up—parts of which are now abandoned by the effects of climate change," In These Times, January 2022, https://inthesetimes.com/article/morocco-oasis-es-sfalat-tafilalet-abandoned-village-climate-change-ghost-town, reports that, in line with predictions and reports by the " Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, oases in hyper-arid climates are subject to water shortages because of climatic shifts, and many have been abandoned. Desertification has encroached on the oases and drought has intensified, and fires have destroyed many of them. This decline has prompted many residents to migrate to urban areas near and far." This is the case in desert areas of Morocco, where previously thriving oasis communities have largely been abandoned.

         Brett Wilkins, "13 Million People Facing Climate-Driven Starvation in Horn of Africa: WFP: 'Many of them are children,' said one United Nations official, 'who are at even greater risk due to one of the worst climate-induced emergencies of the past 40 years,'" Common Dreams, February 9, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/02/09/13-million-people-facing-climate-driven-starvation-horn-africa-wfp, reported, " Severe drought driven by the climate emergency has pushed 13 million people in the Horn of Africa to the brink of starvation, the United Nations World Food Program reported Tuesday.
        We need to act now to prevent a catastrophe.'
         Three straight failed rainy seasons in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia have 'decimated crops and caused abnormally high livestock deaths,' while 'shortages of water and pasture are forcing families from their homes and triggering conflict between communities,' according to the World Food Program (WFP).
         Of the 13 million people at risk of starving, 'many of them are children, who are at even greater risk due to one of the worst climate-induced emergencies of the past 40 years,' said Mohamed M. Fall, Eastern and Southern Africa regional director for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), U.N. News reports."

        "Cyclone Batsirai Floods Madagascar," Earth Pbservatory, January 30 - February 10, 2022, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149454/cyclone-batsirai-floods-madagascar, reported. " Tropical Cyclone Batsirai [the second most powerful storm to strike Africa up to that time in 2022] swept over the Indian Ocean and into central and southern Madagascar on February 5–6, 2022, bringing torrential rain, flooding, and high winds. The storm devastated entire villages, killing at least 120 people and leaving tens of thousands displaced, according to the country’s Office of Risks and Disasters.
         The cyclone came just two weeks after the island nation was struck by Tropical Storm Ana , which followed a series of heavy rainstorms in mid-January. Flooding and landslides killed at least 58 people and displaced more than 70,000."

         Climate change is bringing increasing heavy rains to South Africa, so that for the third time, beginning in 2017, the country has been hit by torrential rains causing a devistating record flood. John Eligon, "Death Toll in South Africa Floods Passes 306: The devastation fueled criticism that the government should have been better prepared for the weather after intense rain in 2017 and 2019," The New York Times, April 14, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/13/world/africa/south-africa-durban-floods.html, reported, " The death toll from several days of punishing rain that drenched the city of Durban and the surrounding areas near South Africa’s east coast rose to more than 306 on Wednesday, prompting criticism from residents that the government had failed to prepare for what are now increasingly frequent storms.
        Although the rain in the region stopped on Tuesday, officials were still trying to fully assess the massive human and infrastructure toll as rescue crews rummaged through muddy hillsides in search of the missing. The dayslong rain was reminiscent of weather around this same time in 2017 and in 2019 but brought more destruction, washing away bridges, leaving gaping holes in roadways, and sweeping homes and shacks from their foundations."

         Brian P. Dunleavy, "Extreme heat raises risk for mental health crises in U.S., study finds," UPI, February 23, 2022, https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2022/02/23/extreme-heat-mental-health-risk-study/9321645625261/?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220301&instance_id=54555&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=84290&te=1&u3L=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Adults in the United States are at increased risk for seeking emergency room care for mental health crises, including substance use, anxiety and stress, when it's hot, a study published Wednesday by JAMA Psychiatry (https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/2789481?guestAccessKey=689710a0-a6a0-483c-809d-0a93fb2e49ab) found, " Days with higher-than-normal temperatures during the summer in the United States saw increased rates of emergency room visits for mental health-related conditions, the data showed."

         Damian Carrington, "Global heating is cutting sleep across the world, study finds: Data shows people finding it harder to sleep, especially women and older people, with serious health impacts," Reuters, May, 20, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/may/20/global-heating-cutting-sleep-study-health-impacts?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220524&instance_id=62250&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=93206&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Rising temperatures driven by the climate crisis are cutting the sleep of people across the world, the largest study to date has found.
        Good sleep is critical to health and wellbeing. But global heating is increasing night-time temperatures, even faster than in the day, making it harder to sleep. The analysis revealed that the average global citizen is already losing 44 hours of sleep a year, leading to 11 nights with less than seven hours’ sleep, a standard benchmark of sufficient sleep."

        As oceans rise from global warming more and more areas are flooding or threatened with flooding. A notable example is that historic Colonial Jamestown in Virginia is now threatened with devastating flooding (Michael E. Ruane, " Colonial Jamestown, assailed by climate change, is facing disaster," Washington Post, May 4, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2022/05/04/jamestown-climate-change-floods-endangered/).
        Carl Davidson, Bill Fletcher Jr. and Nina Gregg, "A Transformative Green New Deal Requires Inclusive Manufacturing: Without a new approach to manufacturing, we may protect the environment better but continue to reinforce racial and economic inequality. Manufacturing is the only economic sector that can generate new wealth for communities currently shut out," Portside, February 10, 2022, https://portside.org/2022-02-10/transformative-green-new-deal-requires-inclusive-manufacturing, reported, " Progressives who care about the climate, democracy, economic justice, and sustainability need to incorporate a new economic vision into their projects. The progressive movement needs a distinctive industrial policy: a manufacturing renaissance in addition to a Green New Deal (GND). We will not have a sustainable society without a strong manufacturing foundation. Manufacturing is the only economic sector that can generate new wealth for communities currently shut out of access. Advanced manufacturing can build a broad-based working class with much higher incomes and create social capital at work, provide a decent standard of living, and be an engine for job growth.
        The new HR 5124 introduced by Representative Jan Schakowsky (D-Ill.) speaks directly to this issue. The bill calls for massive investment throughout the US manufacturing ecosystem and addresses the inadequacy of many of our public schools (a result of decades of underfunding) along with the currently prohibitive costs of post-secondary education and advanced technical skills training. HR 5124 will foster a diverse workforce with the advanced skills and knowledge to design, manufacture, build, and maintain new energy systems and their components and the lighter eco-footprint production and transportation systems of the future. The bill creates the opportunity for dramatic increases in the number of companies owned by their employees and by Black and Latino entrepreneurs by funding programs and policies that lead to greater inclusion of workers, women, and people of color in all aspects of manufacturing, particularly in ownership. Cosponsors include Ro Khanna (D-Calif.), Michael Doyle (D-Penn.), Danny Davis (D-Ill.), Marie Newman (D-Ill.), Tim Ryan (D-Ohio), and Brendan Boyle (D-Penn.)."

         Lisa Friedman, "Court Revokes Oil and Gas Leases, Citing Climate Change: A judge ruled that the Interior Department must consider the climate effects of oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico before awarding leases," The New York Times, January 28, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/27/climate/federal-court-drilling-gulf.html, reported, " A federal judge on Thursday canceled oil and gas leases of more than 80 million acres in the Gulf of Mexico, ruling that the Biden administration did not sufficiently take climate change into account when it auctioned the leases late last year.
        The decision by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia is a major victory for environmental groups that criticized the Biden administration for holding the sale after promising to move the country away from fossil fuels. It had been the largest lease sale in United States history."

        "New Vehicle Mileage Standards Will Have a Mandatory 40 mpg By 2026: Program Includes $7500 Tax Credit For Electric Vehicles," The Paper, December 20th, 2021, https://abq.news/2021/12/new-vehicle-mileage-standards-will-have-a-mandatory-40-mpg-by-2026/, reported, "In a major step to fight climate change, the Biden administration is raising vehicle mileage standards to significantly reduce emissions of planet-warming greenhouse gases, reversing a Trump-era rollback that loosened fuel efficiency standards.
        A final rule issued Monday would raise mileage standards starting in the 2023 model year, reaching a projected industry-wide target of 40 miles per gallon by 2026. The new standard is 25% higher than a rule finalized by the Trump administration last year and 5% higher than a proposal by the Environmental Protection Agency in August."

         John Rosevear, "Biden administration announces $3.1 billion to make electric vehicle batteries in the U.S.," CNBC, May 2, 2022, https://www.cnbc.com/2022/05/02/white-house-announces-3point1-billion-for-us-ev-battery-manufacturing-.html, reported, "The Biden administration announced on Monday that it will provide $3.1 billion in funding to support efforts to make electric vehicle batteries and components in the United States.
        The funding, part of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law enacted last year, will aid plans by U.S. companies to build new factories and retrofit existing ones to make EV batteries and related parts."
        Further the Department of Energy announced an additional $60 million will be available to support the reuse and recycling of used EV batteries.

         The Biden Administration announced plan, in February 2022, to build electric vehicle charging stations on highways in all 50 U.S. states (Jack Ewing, "U.S. Outlines Plan to Build E.V. Chargers by Highways," The New York Times, February 11, 2022).

        The Biden Administration acted, in late January 2022, to reinstate a method for measuring the benefits of reducing air pollution, thrown out by the Trump administration, as part of an effort to reduce mercury pollution from powerplants (Coral Davenport, "Biden to Reinstate Air Pollution Rule Weakened Under Trump," The New York Times, February 1, 2022).

        Liz Ruskin, "Biden administration deals setback to Ambler road," Alaska Public Media: NPR, February 22, 2022, https://www.alaskapublic.org/2022/02/22/biden-administration-deals-setback-to-ambler-road/, reported, " The Biden administration is reeling back federal permission for the proposed Ambler road, a project that would support large-scale mining in Northwest Alaska.
        In a court filing Tuesday, the administration agreed with road opponents that the environmental analysis of the project is flawed. The Interior Department wants to reconsider the federal right-of-way permits that the Trump administration granted." Alaska Natives in the area have objected to the road in this long roadless area fearing it would bring in hunters who would drastically reduce the game they rely on for subsistence living (Joaqlin Estus, "Tribes object to exclusion from subsistence meeting: ‘Blatantly excluding tribes from these conversations is unethical and shuts out an essential voice in these discussion,’" ICT, February 2, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/tribes-object-to-exclusion-from-subsistence-meeting).

        The Environmental Protection Agency announced, December 16, 2022, its intention to propose stricter guidelines for lead in drinking water and to begin acting to replace a huge number of older pipes around the U.S. (Lisa Friedman, "E.P.A. Will Toughen Rules on Lead in Water and Begin Replacing Millions of Older Pipes," The New York Times, December 17, 2021).

        " California Reveals Its Plan to Phase Out New Gas-Powered Cars by 2035: If adopted, the new measures would make a dent in the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and set the bar for the broader auto industry," The New York Times, April 13, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/13/climate/california-electric-vehicles.html, reported, "California on Wednesday made public an aggressive plan to mandate a steady increase in the sale of electric and zero-emissions vehicles, the first step in enacting a first-in-the-nation goal of banning new gasoline-powered cars by 2035 ."

        The Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University announced plans, in December 2021, to develop concrete pavement that can charge electric vehicles without contact as they drive over it (Kerry Hannon, "Roads that Charge Cars Could Be Near," The New York Times, December 25, 2021).

        Food and Water Watch stated in a June 2, 2022 E-mail, " California implemented the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) with the stated intention of reducing the state’s carbon emissions. As the largest program like this in the country — and in one of the largest states — the LCFS has a big impact. Unfortunately, it’s propping up dirty fuels around the country.
        The program allows polluters to count methods like carbon capture and storage, biogas, and dirty hydrogen as clean energy sources, to offset excessive emissions. But we know these are little more than greenwashed 'solutions' that don’t actually reduce carbon emissions, but do cause environmental damage and pose serious health risks for nearby communities
."

        Liliana Castillo, media@nmcleancarscleanair.com, 575.219.9619, " New Mexico adopts Clean Cars standards," The New Mexico Clean Cars Clean Air Coalition, press release, May 5, 2022, reported, "On Thursday, the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board and the City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board voted to adopt Advanced Clean Cars Standards after two days of public hearings and a robust stakeholder engagement process over the past year.
         The standards will require automakers to provide increasing percentages of electric and low-emission vehicles in New Mexico. The Advanced Clean Car I Standards will go into effect for model year 2026, with cars arriving in showrooms in 2025. With expected incentives in the approved rule, electric vehicles could begin to fill showrooms as early as July 2022. The NM Clean Cars Clean Air coalition of over 35 organizations across the state supported the rules.
        More than 900 New Mexicans submitted written or spoken comments in support of the rule, and NRDC's Kathy Harris testified that studies have shown expanding EV access will provide more than $5 billion in savings to New Mexico utility customers and $3.8 billion in maintenance and fuel savings to New Mexico drivers over 25 years.
         Transportation is the second-largest contributor to climate pollution. Vehicle emissions are linked to health damages including decreased lung function, airway inflammation, aggravated asthma, increased cancer risk, damage to the immune system, and other neurological, reproductive, developmental problems.
        The New Mexico Clean Cars Clean Air Coalition, consisting of more than 35 businesses, nonprofit organizations, local agencies, and unions, participated in the rulemaking process. The coalition applauds this action by the administrations of Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham and Mayor Tim Keller.
        Following are statements from Coalition partners:
        'The new rules have the effect of vastly reducing the climate effects of vehicles, so we celebrate the decision for the limited income people we represent who are the first and hardest hit by the climate crisis that we are in,' says Ona Porter with Prosperity Works.
        'Clean cars make sense for New Mexico,' says Tammy Fiebelkorn of the Southwest Energy Efficiency Project. 'Clean cars will save us money, conserve gasoline, protect our health and help preserve our climate. The bigger we go on clean transportation, the larger the benefits will be. We’re looking forward to working with the Lujan Grisham administration on further policies to clean up our cars and trucks.'
        'More than 900 New Mexicans submitted comments supporting these standards' said Ken Hughes, Sierra Club Rio Grande Chapter’s Transportation chair. ' The American Lung Association has found that electrification will save New Mexicans $3 billion and 273 lives. Access to money-saving EVs is critical to our climate and to ending our dependence on dangerous oil and gas. I’m so glad it will be easier for all New Mexicans to find and buy electric cars. They’re safer, more affordable, and open the door to a healthier economy in New Mexico.
        'As the devastating wildfires in the state make clear, we need to accelerate efforts to cut dangerous carbon pollution and transition to a cleaner economy,' says Kathy Harris, clean vehicles advocate at NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council). 'This action will ensure drivers get the cleaner cars and trucks they want, saving them money at the pump while cleaning the air for our children and grandchildren. Everyone will be better off.'
        'Clean Cars rules will open new doors to cleaner air and healthier communities in New Mexico by reducing dirty vehicle pollution and addressing climate change,” says Liliana Castillo, deputy director at CAVU (Climate Advocates Voces Unidas). “We applaud Governor Lujan Grisham and Mayor Tim Keller for continuing to move New Mexico toward a thriving and resilient climate and economy for all of our communities.'
        'We applaud the decision by the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board and the City of Albuquerque - Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board to adopt clean car standards that will improve the air our children breathe and combat the growing climate crisis. Across the nation, parents want to see a rapid transition to zero-emitting vehicles. With today's decision, New Mexico joins California and more than a dozen other states to better protect our children and our communities from dangerous tailpipe pollution. New Mexico parents are celebrating this important decision today, because we know that we have no time to waste to take meaningful action on climate change.' says Ana Rios, Moms Clean Air Force
        'New Mexico’s Clean Car Rule will help protect the health of our children and families,' says Amber Wallin, executive director of New Mexico Voices for Children. 'These new standards will set us on a path toward cleaner, pollution-free air in the Land of Enchantment and make electric vehicles more accessible to New Mexico families looking to save money at the pump and do their part to fight climate change.'
        'Many communities around New Mexico, urban and rural, suffer from the damaging health effects of vehicle tailpipe emissions,' says Samantha Kao, climate & energy advocate at CVNM (Conservation Voters New Mexico). 'Advanced Clean Cars rules will increase availability of zero- and low-emission vehicles and spur investment in the charging infrastructure that rural New Mexicans need while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We are ready to work with the state to pivot to Advanced Clean Cars II and Advanced Clean Trucks rulemakings to get to 100% electric vehicles.'
        'The New Mexico Environmental Law Center is proud to be part of the efforts calling for the strongest Clean Car Standards here in our state,' said Dr. Virginia Necochea, Executive Director, New Mexico Environmental Law Center, 'which will mean less carbon emissions. We applaud the administrations of Gov. Lujan Grisham and Albuquerque's Mayor Tim Keller for taking this important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions at least 26% by 2025 in line with the Paris Agreement. It is our obligation and responsibility to current and future generations to ensure the necessary policy changes now to avoid the worst aspects of the climate crisis.'
        'New Mexico’s adoption of the Clean Car Rule is an important first step toward shifting away from fossil-fueled vehicles that contribute to climate change and the air pollution that disproportionately impacts low-income communities located along highways and near industrial areas,' says Aaron Kressig, transportation electrification manager at Western Resource Advocates. 'When vehicles are powered by clean energy, communities experience substantial economic, environmental, and public health benefits. We look forward to working with the state to build on this momentum and bring forward Advanced Clean Trucks and Advanced Clean Cars II standards, so we can further reduce harmful fossil-fuel emissions and act on climate change.'
        'We applaud New Mexico in adopting Clean Cars Standards that will help make electric vehicles a real and better choice for New Mexicans. These standards will save consumers money, lessen the devastating impacts of climate change, and help protect our health for generations to come. We look forward to continuing our work with the state’s policy and legislative officials as they take a leadership role in developing a prosperous and sustainable clean transportation future,' said Peter Chipman, Senior Policy Director, Plug In America.
        Background
        In early 2019, Gov. Lujan Grisham announced that New Mexico would join the U.S. Climate Alliance, a bipartisan coalition of 23 governors committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 26 percent from 2005 levels by 2025 – a goal consistent with the Paris Agreement. After signing into law a number of bills passed by the New Mexico Legislature to further commit the state to renewable energy and net-zero greenhouse gas emissions, Lujan Grisham signed an executive order directing state agencies to develop a State Climate Strategy and identify policies to reach these greenhouse gas goals. In 2018 Keller signed the Climate Mayors pledge, committing the City to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.
        ###
        The New Mexico Clean Cars Clean Air Coalition includes consumer groups and EV drivers, conservation advocates, businesses and leaders, local governments and elected officials, health voices, frontline communities, and labor representatives."

        Ben Ryder Howe, "The Battery That Flies: A new aircraft being built in Vermont has no need for jet fuel. It can take off and land without a runway. Amazon and the Air Force are both betting on it. So who will be in the cockpit?" The New York Times, April 17, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/16/business/beta-electric-airplane.html, reported on a new, green powered aircraft, " It is, essentially, a flying battery. And it represented a long-held aviation goal: an aircraft with no need for jet fuel and therefore no carbon emissions, a plane that could take off and land without a runway and quietly hop from recharging station to recharging station, like a large drone."

        "Interior Dept. Signs MOU to Prioritize Renewable Energy Projects On Public Lands: 'Climate Crisis Most Apparent In Our Nation’s Rural Communities,'” The Paper, January 12th, 2022, https://abq.news/2022/01/interior-dept-signs-mou-to-prioritize-renewable-energy-projects-on-public-lands/, reported, " The U.S. Departments of the Interior, Agriculture, Defense, Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency today announced a Memorandum of Understanding (https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/mou-esb46-04208-pub-land-renewable-energy-proj-permit-coord-doi-usda-dod-epa-doe-2022-01-06.pdf) to improve federal agency coordination and streamline reviews for clean energy projects located on public lands managed by the Interior and Agriculture Departments. Federal agencies will prioritize and expedite federal agency reviews by establishing interagency coordination teams with qualified staff to facilitate the preparation of environmental reviews, accelerate renewable energy decision-making and coordinate all environmental and other agency reviews.
        The MOU supports the Biden administration’s goal of a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035, as well as Congress’s direction in the Energy Act of 2020 to permit 25 gigawatts of solar, wind and geothermal production on public lands no later than 2025. It also builds on Biden’s Executive Order which prioritized improved permitting for the increased deployment of clean energy on public lands."

         Maxine Joselow and Douglas MacMillan, " The SEC proposed a landmark climate disclosure rule. Here’s what to know: The proposed regulation would force hundreds of companies to disclose emissions for the first time, but critics may challenge the SEC’s authority to address climate risk in court: The Washington Post, March 21, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2022/03/21/sec-climate-change-rule/ reported, " The Securities and Exchange Commission on Monday approved a landmark proposal to require all publicly traded companies to disclose their greenhouse gas emissions and the risks they face from climate change ."
        " What exactly does the rule say?
        Under the proposed rule, all publicly traded companies would have to disclose their climate-related risks in their financial reports to the SEC and explain how those risks will probably affect their business and strategy, according to a fact sheet from the commission.
All firms would be required to share the emissions they generate at their own facilities, and larger businesses would need to have these numbers vetted by an independent auditing firm, the SEC said. If the indirect emissions produced by a company’s suppliers and customers are “material” to investors or included in the company’s climate targets, the SEC said those emissions must be disclosed as well.
        For companies that have made public pledges to reduce their carbon footprint, the SEC said it will require them to detail how they intend to meet their goal and to share any relevant data. Companies also would need to disclose their reliance on carbon offsets, which some climate activists view with skepticism, to meet their emissions reduction goals.
        If a company uses an internal price on carbon, it would need to share information about the price and how it is set. In 2019, ExxonMobil prevailed in a high-profile lawsuit alleging that the oil giant misled investors by using two different estimates — one public, one private — of the future costs of climate change."

         Lisa Friedman, "Sale of Leases for Wind Farms Off New York Raises More Than $4 Billion: The auctioned areas are expected to generate enough power for nearly 2 million homes once turbines are built," The New York Times, February 25, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/25/climate/new-york-offshore-wind-auction.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220301&instance_id=54555&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=84290&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, " The United States government netted a record $4.37 billion on Friday from the sale of six offshore wind leases off the coasts of New York and New Jersey, a major step in the Biden administration’s goal of ushering in a future powered by renewable energy.
        The auction, of more than 488,000 acres
in the Atlantic Ocean between Cape May, N.J., and Montauk Point, N.Y., was the Biden administration’s first offshore lease sale." When the turbines are up and operating they are expected to generate up to 7,000 megawatts of electricity, which could supply close to 2 million homes with power.

         Coral Davenport, "California Returns as Climate Leader, With Help From the White House: The Biden administration is restoring the state’s power to set its own limits on tailpipe pollution and is largely adopting the state’s rules regarding heavy trucks," The New York Times,
Feb. 15, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/15/climate/california-waiver-emissions.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220216&instance_id=53372&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=82942&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " The Biden administration is preparing strict new limits on pollution from buses, delivery vans, tractor-trailers and other heavy trucks, the first time tailpipe standards have been tightened for the biggest polluters on the road since 2001.
         The new federal regulations are drawn from truck pollution rules recently enacted by California and come as the Biden administration is moving to restore that state’s legal authority to set auto emissions limits that are tighter than federal standards, according to two people familiar with the matter, who were not authorized to speak on the record."

         Jonathan M. Gitlin, "PG&E will pilot bidirectional electric car charging in California: Ford and General Motors are both working with PG&E on trials," ars Tecnica, March 11, 2022, https://arstechnica.com/cars/2022/03/californias-utility-will-begin-testing-ev-vehicle-to-grid-charging/, reported, "Disaster preparedness is becoming a bit more mainstream as the effects of climate change and the fallibility of human institutions become more clear. The auto industry has followed this trend, with more than one automaker pointing to the fact that an electric vehicle is essentially a giant backup battery that could power your home for a few days in the event of an emergency.
        Now, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) will begin testing bidirectional charging in California with new pilot programs announced this week at General Motors and Ford
."

         Hannah Grover, "State agencies, national labs team up in zero-carbon hydrogen effort," New Mexico Political Report, January 24, 2024, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/01/24/state-agencies-national-labs-team-up-in-zero-carbon-hydrogen-effort/?mc_cid=7fd8870fd1&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported, " Hydrogen will be a key energy source in meeting the [New Mexico] state’s goals of net zero by 2050 and at least 45 percent reduction from 2005 levels by 2030, according to New Mexico Environment Department Secretary James Kenney.
        Kenney spoke to NM Political Report after his agency, as well as the Energy Minerals and Natural Resources Department and the Economic Development Department, signed a memorandum of understanding with Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories with the stated purpose to 'facilitate the development of sound science, advance technologies and inform national/state policies that could enable a path to zero carbon hydrogen.'”

        Cooking with natural gas contributes significantly to global warming, partly in the burning of this fossil fuel, but largely in the leaks of methane - natural gas - that occur in the extraction, storage and transportation of the gas. Cooking this way also causes indoor air pollution, particularly by increasing the amount of air born nitrogen dioxide. An increasing number of people in the more developed countries are becoming aware of the problem and are switching to electrical cooking ("The Case for Induction Cooking: As the perils of cooking with gas become more apparent, there’s ever more reason for cooks to turn to these flameless, easy-to-clean ranges," The New York Times, March 15, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/11/dining/induction-cooking.html).

        Joshua Partlow, "Facing a new climate reality, southern California lawns could wither,: The Washington Post, May 9. 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2022/05/09/california-drought-lawns-climate-change/ reported, " The persistent drought in the West has forced southern California officials to take unprecedented water conservation measures affecting 6 million people. The move means that many residents’ lawns may wither, as Los Angelenos face up to a new climate reality."

         Brad Plumer, "Louisiana Company to Pay $43 Million for Longest-Running Oil Spill in U.S. History: Taylor Energy’s undersea wells have been leaking into the Gulf of Mexico since 2004, when they were damaged by Hurricane Ivan," The New York Times, December 22, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/22/climate/taylor-energy-oil-spill-gulf.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20211229&instance_id=48983&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=78211&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " The Department of Justice announced on Wednesday that Louisiana-based Taylor Energy will pay $43 million in civil penalties and damages for a leak in the Gulf of Mexico that has been releasing oil since 2004, the longest-running spill in U.S. history.
        As part of the settlement, Taylor Energy will also transfer to the Department of the Interior control of $432 million remaining in a trust fund dedicated to clenaning up the spill."

         Because making cement is a major contributor to global warming, in Norway and elsewhere in Scandinavia, tall building are being constructed of wood instead of steel and concrete ( Rebecca Mead, "Transforming Trees Into Skyscrapers: In Scandinavia, ecologically minded architects are building towers with pillars of pine and spruce" New Yorker, April 18, 2022, ).

        "EU backslides on U.N. biodiversity conservation goal, Eurostat says," Reuters, May 23, 2022, " The European Union progressed towards most of the United Nations' sustainable development goals over the last five years, but took a step back on the conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity, the bloc's statistics office said on Monday.
        As population grows, urbanisation speeds up and the need for natural resources increases, the U.N.'s 'life on land' global goal seeks to combat deforestation and desertification, restore degraded land and soil, halt biodiversity loss and protect threatened species.
        Eurostat data however showed a plunge in biodiversity and continued land degradation in the bloc, with an 'unfavourable conservation status' for many species and habitats set to be preserved by the EU."

        Mitra Taj, "Who Is Responsible for the 27-Mile Oil Spill in Peru? A leak at a refinery tarred miles of Pacific Coast beaches. The company blames waves caused by a distant volcano eruption, but the Peruvian government has vowed to 'defend the sea.'" The New York Times, February 4, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/03/world/americas/peru-oil-spill.html, reported, "More than two weeks after a botched tanker delivery sent thousands of barrels of crude oil spilling into the sea off Peru, black waves are still fouling beaches and fingers are still being pointed."

        Soleil Foy, "On a High Note: Alberta Tightens Emission Standards for Oil Sands Mines," World War Zero, February 16, 2022, https://worldwarzero.com/magazine/2022/02/on-a-high-note-alberta-tightens-emission-standards-for-oil-sands-mines/?emci=bcb1d23c-5d8f-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&emdi=11c314a8-628f-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&ceid=1763602, reported, "Recently, the province of Alberta in Canada has announced its intention to toughen up its current greenhouse gas emission standards for oil sands mines. The oil sands (AKA the tar sands) are vast oil fields and mines in the Canadian province of Alberta. Making up the largest industrial projects in the world , the sands cover an area greater than England , are located on Indigenous land , and produce some of the ' world's most carbon-intense crude .' But, in the last couple of years, a loophole has allowed them to benefit financially from their emissions through tradeable performance credits.
        Alberta’s overhaul of the previous emissions-reduction system will mean oil sands mines can no longer be paid for their emissions, and it will help the province
reduce its absolute (versus relative) emissions . It also puts Canada on track to reach net-zero emissions by 2050 , in alignment with the Paris Agreement ."

        "Germany unveils plans to accelerate green energy expansion," Reuters, April 6, 2022, https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/germany-present-renewable-energy-expansion-measures-2022-04-05/, reported, " Germany's economy and climate ministry presented a package of measures on Wednesday to speed up the expansion of renewable energy, as the need to reduce the country's heavy reliance on Russian fossil fuels adds urgency to its green transition plans.
        The package envisages green energy accounting for 80% of the power mix in Europe's biggest economy by 2030, up from about 40% now and a previous target of 65%."

         Simon Jessop, "BlackRock expects 75% of company and govt assets to be net zero-aligned by 2030: Statement covers corporate, sovereign-linked assets, Depends on change in the real economy, client choice, NGO calls for more than 'vague commitments'," Reuters, April 14, https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/blackrock-expects-75-company-govt-assets-be-net-zero-aligned-by-2030-2022-04-14/, reported, " BlackRock (BLK.N) on Thursday projected that by 2030 at least three quarters of its investments in companies and governments will be tied to issuers with a scientific target to cut net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050, up from 25% currently.
        It was the first time BlackRock, the world's biggest asset manager with $9.6 trillion in assets, has said how its portfolio could look in 2030 as far as emissions are concerned, but it remains an expectation rather than a firm target."

         Hiroko Tabuchi, "Oil Giants Sell Dirty Wells to Buyers With Looser Climate Goals, Study Finds: The transactions can help major oil and gas companies clean up their own production by transferring polluting assets to a different firm, the analysis said," The New York Times, May 10, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/10/climate/oilfield-sales-pollution.html, "When Royal Dutch Shell sold off its stake in the Umuechem oil field in Nigeria last year, it was, on paper, a step forward for the company’s climate ambitions: Shell could clean up its holdings, raise money to invest in cleaner technologies, and move toward its goal of net zero emissions by 2050.
        As soon as Shell left, however, the oil field underwent a change so significant it was detected from space: a surge in flaring , or the wasteful burning of excess gas in towering columns of smoke and fire. Flaring emits planet-warming greenhouse gases, as well as soot, into the atmosphere."
        This story is unfolding world-wide
as numerous oil companies are in the process of selling perhaps $100 billion in oil fields to improve their carbon footprint on paper, with many of the buyers only interested in increasing production with no comncerns for the environment, especially global warming. This is leading to increased pollution, especially of greenhouse gasses.

         Anna Lappé, "Nature-Based Agroecology Is Gaining Momentum as a Key Climate Solution: Responsible for roughly one-third of the world's carbon emissions, the global food system is one of the key places for transformative action," Common Dreams, April 15, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/views/2022/04/15/nature-based-agroecology-gaining-momentum-key-climate-solution, reported, " Responsible for roughly one-third of the world's carbon emissions, the global food system is one of the key places for transformative action. Among the 3,675 pages of Working Group II's report on climate impacts, adaptations, and vulnerabilities, the authors—270 of them from 67 countries—share evidence for strategies that can be adopted rapidly to reduce the food system's climate impacts while strengthening resilience and improving health, food security, and the well-being of food producers.
        One strategy the report highlights is agroecology (https://news.mongabay.com/2022/04/from-traditional-practice-to-top-climate-solution-agroecology-gets-growing-attention/). Defined in the report as a 'holistic approach' to farming, agroecology as a practice includes techniques such as intercropping and planting cover crops, integrating livestock and trees into landscapes, and deploying organic farming methods to enhance biodiversity and soil health while eliminating dependence on external inputs like pesticides and synthetic fertilizer. It's a nature-based solution that can 'contribute to both climate mitigation and adaptation,' the IPCC stresses. It's also a solution grounded in an embrace of the human rights of Indigenous and small-scale producers, as articulated in the 13 principles of (https://www.fao.org/3/ca5602en/ca5602en.pdf) from the United Nation's High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition."

         Increases in traffic and fuel burning in growing large cities in tropical regions of the world is greatly increasing air pollution. If this pollution is not controlled by regulatory action, it is likely to cause thousands of additional deaths. Already in 2018 air pollution was found to be the cause of over 100,000 deaths (Maggie Astor, "Emissions from Tropical Megacities could Usher in 'New Era of Air Pollution,'" The New York Times, April 19, 2022).

        Jason Gulley, "Descending Into Florida’s Underwater Caves: The world’s densest collection of freshwater springs is at the center of a slow-motion environmental tragedy," The New York Times, June 1, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/11/travel/florida- freshwater-springs.html, reported, "Florida has the densest collection of freshwater springs on the planet. Every day, the state’s more than 1,000 freshwater springs collectively discharge billions of gallons of groundwater to the surface. Springs provide critical habitat for aquatic animals, including the iconic Florida manatee, and anchor Florida’s inland water-based recreation industry. Visitors from around the world come to Florida’s springs to fish, kayak, tube, swim and scuba dive through the miles of underwater caves that connect springs to the aquifer and pipe water to the surface. Springs tourism injects cash into rural economies across the state."
        " Over the last several decades, a combination of development, population growth, climate change, overpumping of the aquifer and pollution from agriculture and sewage have wreaked havoc on Florida’s springs. Many springs show significantly reduced water flow. Others have stopped flowing entirely."

         Raymond Zhong and Nadja Popovich, "How Air Pollution Across America Reflects Racist Policy From the 1930s: A new study shows how redlining, a Depression-era housing policy, contributed to inequalities that persist decades later in U.S. cities," The New York Times, March 9, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/09/climate/redlining-racism-air-pollution.html, reported, " Urban neighborhoods that were redlined by federal officials in the 1930s tended to have higher levels of harmful air pollution eight decades later, a new study has found, adding to a body of evidence that reveals how racist policies in the past have contributed to inequalities across the United States today.
        In the wake of the Great Depression, when the federal government graded neighborhoods in hundreds of cities for real estate investment, Black and immigrant areas were typically outlined in red on maps to denote risky places to lend. Racial discrimination in housing was outlawed in 1968. But the redlining maps entrenched discriminatory practices whose effects reverberate nearly a century later."

         The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe of Colorado is concerned that increased illnesses among the tribe, including respiratory problems in children, may be caused by pollution from the White Mesa Mill, a uranium processing plant. The EPA has cited the mill for violating the Clean Air Act, causing possible radon emissions. An Energy Fuels spokesperson from the plant says the mill is not the cause and plans to expand its operation (Conrad Swanson, "Colorado, Utah tribe worries nation’s last uranium mill is contaminating water, causing uptick in illness: Officials at White Mesa Mill say contamination in the area doesn’t come from them, plan to expand," Denver Post, April 22, 2022, https://www.denverpost.com/2022/04/20/white-mesa-mill-uranium-contamination-ute/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.j25tFSyQ70ECmn1gzQJsJwQ.rU6oTSBUzRE6QSZQTrQ3PXQ.lhpqoauNKs0uPgwZNW6cbFQ).

         Simon Romero, Why the Debate Over Russian Uranium Worries U.S. Tribal Nations: If imports end because of the war, American companies may look to increase domestic mining, which has a toxic history on Indigenous lands," The New York Times, May 2, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/02/us/us-uranium-supply-native-tribes.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220503&instance_id=60296&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=91134&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, "After Russia invaded Ukraine in February, the United States slapped bans on Russian energy sources from oil to coal. But one critical Russian energy import was left alone: uranium, which the United States relies on to fuel more than 90 nuclear reactors around the country.
        That dependence on Russia is breathing life into ambitions to resurrect the uranium industry around the American West — and also evoking fears of the industry’s toxic legacy of pollution. With some of the most coveted uranium lodes found around Indigenous lands, the moves are setting up clashes between mining companies and energy security hawks on one side and tribal nations and environmentalists on the other."
        The Havasupai Tribe in the Grand Canyon is very concerned about efforts to mine uranium at Arizona’s Pinyon Plain Mine, less than 10 miles from the Grand Canyon, and the Navajo are still suffering from radiation from past mining on and near their lands, which they strongly object to restating.

        In order to reduce carbon emissions, the government of France announced plans, in February 2022, to build up to 14 new large nuclear power plants and a large number of small power producing reactors (Liz Alderman, "France Announces a Vast Expansion of Nuclear Power," The New York Times, February 11, 2022).

        Joaqlin Estus, "Alaska Affirms Water Certificate for Proposed Donlin Mine," ICT, May 19, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/007acef6-5e13-ebda-bab4-223471703bc8/5.19.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, "The state of Alaska on May 13 affirmed its 2019 decision to issue a 401 clean water certification for an open-pit gold mine in Southwest Alaska despite a lawsuit contesting the determination."
         The Yup’ik tribe Orutsararmiut Native Council, of Bethel, and Earthjustice have sued, saying the [large open-pit, hard-rock gold mine near the confluence of Crooked Creek and the Kuskokwim River] mine would damage habitat for salmon and other species critical to providing food security for more than a dozen tribes in the area."

         Gabriel Friedman, "How Trudeau proposes to make Canada a key supplier of critical minerals: Critical minerals include not only the lithium, nickel and cobalt used in batteries, but a far wider array of elements, from copper to manganese," Sudbury Star, April 9, 2022, https://www.thesudburystar.com/news/local-news/how-trudeau-proposes-to-make-canada-a-key-supplier-of-critical-minerals, eported,

        " Map

Description automatically generated        " Crystia Freeland’s second budget as finance minister proposes billions of dollars in new spending to incentivize more mining of critical minerals through investments in infrastructure, tax credits for exploration, and funding to help attract the downstream industries that turn those minerals into products such as electric vehicles and battery cells."
        " Some of the most geologically prospective critical mineral belts are located in regions inhabited by indigenous communities. The budget proposes $103.4 million over five years so Natural Resources Canada can develop “a National Benefits-Sharing Framework,” which would include an expansion of the Indigenous Partnership Office and the Indigenous Natural Resource Partnerships program."

        "US indigenous communities to receive $46m to address global heating: Alaska Natives are especially at risk, as sea ice and permafrost melt and villages are lost to flooding and erosion," The Guardian, 12 April 12, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/apr/12/us-indigenous-communities-46m-global-heating?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other&bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jjxjUwkq7j0qZ6JY8TF6ZyA.rEcXwWiRkskmbbIlo0kku6A.l6Y5EsVWXA0WtOM1UqVwhcA, reported, " Tribal communities will soon have access to $46m to tackle effects of the climate crisis, which disproportionately threaten Indigenous Americans’ food supplies, livelihoods and infrastructure," as part of the Biden Administration's infrastructure appropriation.
         Native Nations are especially vulnerable to climate change. "Alaska Natives are among America’s first climate refugees, with almost 90% of villages susceptible to flooding and erosion, while in "the south-west, inland communities including the Navajo and Tohono O’odham nations face worsening drought and extreme heat," and costal nations in the Gulf of Mexico and the Northwest coast are faced with flooding. Some, especially alongthe Gulf Coast, have already been seriously inundated and have begun moving.
         With climate change, traditional medicines, and foods, from fish and game, to wild and cultivated crops are already declining, within reservation boundaries, and beyond, in some places more difficult and sometimes dangerous conditions are making them less accessible. Among the anticipated losses, more than half of US salmon and trout habitats are expected to vanish by 2100.
        The current infrastructure legislation authorizes $466m to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, with $216m for climate resilience programs. $130m of that funding is for community relocation, $86m for climate resilience and adaptation projects, with $43.2m annually to be spent for the next five years. The Department of the Interior will award grants in response to Indian nation proposals, taking recognition of tribal ecological knowledge and traditional sustainable practices, while supporting community-driven rather than imposed relocation. The current funding is significant, but not nearly enough, or supplied sufficiently quickly, to meet the impacts in Indigenous nations of extreme heat, drought, rising sea level, flooding and other climate change damage which for some time has been causing increasing harm and disruption to communities.

         Damien Cave, "‘Can’t Cope’: Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Suffers 6th Mass Bleaching Event: This year offers a disturbing first: mass bleaching in a year of La Niña. The grim milestone points to the continued threat of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions," The New York Times, March 25, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/25/world/australia/great-barrier-reef-bleaching.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220325&instance_id=56747&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=86590&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " A wide stretch of the Great Barrier Reef has been hit by a sixth mass bleaching event, the marine park’s authority said on Friday, an alarming milestone for the coral wonder that points to the continued threat of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions."
        " Bleaching events have now occurred in four of the past seven years, with 2022 offering a disturbing first — a mass bleaching in a year of La Niña, when more rain and cooler temperatures were supposed to provide a moment of respite for sensitive corals to recover." This is also the sixth year in a row in which ocean temperatures reached record highs.

        Ashira Morris, "Rights of Nature Protect Ecuador's Los Cedros Forest in Court," World War Zero, February 23, 2022, https://worldwarzero.com/magazine/2022/02/rights-of-nature-protect-ecuador-s-los-cedros-forest-in-court/?emci=811b50b8-da94-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&emdi=d7691697-ea94-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&ceid=1763602, reported, Rights of Nature laws convey legal rights to ecosystems like rivers or forests that have historically been reserved for people. Ecuador was the first country to extend constitutional rights to nature, a change that happened in 2008. But these rights weren't put to use until last year when the country's Constitutional Court ruled that a mining project violated a protected rainforest's rights. The Los Cedros case stopped Enami , Ecuador's state mining company, and its Canadian partner, Cornerstone Capital Resources , from exploring the region for mining opportunities since it could harm endangered species living in the forest."

         Lais Modelli, Translated by Roberto Cataldo, "In Brazilian Amazon, Indigenous lands stop deforestation and boost recovery," Mongabay, May 13, 2022, https://news.mongabay.com/2022/05/in-brazilian-amazon-indigenous-lands-stop-deforestation-and-boost-recovery/, reported, "A new study has confirmed that the best-preserved, and recovering, parts of the Brazilian Amazon are those managed by traditional communities or inside conservation units.
         Between 2005 and 2012, deforestation rates were 17 times lower in Indigenous territories than in unprotected areas of the Amazon; in conservation units and lands managed by Quilombolas, the descendants of runaway Afro-Brazilian slaves, deforestation rates were about six times lower than in unprotected areas.
        The study also shows that officially recognized Indigenous and Quilombola territories saw forest regrowth at rates two and three times higher, respectively, than in unprotected areas.
        But the process of officially recognizing Indigenous lands has stalled under the government of President Jair Bolsonaro, which is instead pushing legislation that would open up Indigenous territories to mining and other exploitative activities."

        "Deforestation of Brazil’s indigenous lands on the rise: According to ISA, the Amazon lost 10,222 km2 of forest from January through November 2021," Rio Times, December 23, 2021, https://www.riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-politics/deforestation-of-brazils-indigenous-lands-on-the-rise/, reported, "The Brazilian Socio-environmental Institute (ISA) on Wednesday alerted that in three years of President Jair Bolsonaro's administration, a 138% increase in deforestation on indigenous lands has been registered.
        
The organization reported a 79% increase in the deforestation of protected areas in the Amazon, and urged authorities to implement environmental preservation policies."

        A study by the Global Systems Institute at the University of Exeter has found that the Amazon rain forest is losing its ability to recover from drought an forest clearing land use and may be approaching a tipping point when the rain forest increasingly collapses. This would doubly contribute greatly to global warming as carbon dioxide absorbing trees disappear and the remains of decaying dead vegetation release methane and CO 2 (Henry Fountain, "Study Finds Amazon Less Resiliwent to Drought and Logging ," The New York Times, March 8, 2022).


         Jenny Gonzales, "Chemical defoliants sprayed on Amazon rainforest to facilitate deforestation in Brazil," Mongabay, January 19, 2022, https://news.mongabay.com/2022/01/pesticides-released-into-brazils-amazon-to-degrade-rainforest-and-facilitate-deforestation/, reported that in Brazil, " Chemicals created to kill agricultural pests are being sprayed by aircraft into native forest areas.
        Glyphosate and 2,4-D, among others, cause the trees to defoliate, and end up weakened or dead in a process that takes months. Next criminals remove the remaining trees more easily and drop grass seeds by aircraft, consolidating deforestation.
        Brazil’s environmental agency, IBAMA, discovered that in addition to land grabbers, cattle ranchers use the method in order to circumvent forest monitoring efforts."

        "Even the Cactus May Not Be Safe From Climate Change: More than half of species could face greater extinction risk by midcentury, a new study found, as rising heat and dryness test the prickly plants’ limits," The New York Times, April 14, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/14/climate/cactus-climate-change.html, reported, "The hardy cactus — fond of heat and aridity, adapted to rough soils — might not seem like the picture of a climate change victim.
        Yet even these prickly survivors may be reaching their limits as the planet grows hotter and drier over the coming decades, according to research published on Thursday. The study estimates that, by midcentury, global warming could put 60 percent of cactus species at greater risk of extinction."

        David Helvarg, "Warmer Oceans Threaten Another California Forest, This One Underwater," The New York Times, April 30, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/30/opinion/climate-change-california-kelp.html, reported, " The bull kelp forests off Northern California are sometimes spoken of as the redwoods of the sea. And like the redwoods, these forests are in danger. In less than a decade, these otherworldly undersea landscapes, lush with life, have all but disappeared along 200 miles of coast north of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge.
         The warming climate has set in motion this disaster and it is unclear whether it can be reversed as greenhouse gas emissions continue to flood the atmosphere. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions rose by 6 percent globally in 2021, the biggest increase ever, as the world began bouncing back from pandemic. These kelp forests are yet another ocean casualty of fossil-fueled climate disruption, along with habitats ruined by coral bleaching, rising sea levels, warming ocean waters and the pronounced loss of Arctic sea ice."

        Natasha Lasky, "Are Lower-emitting Bioengineered Animals an Answer?," World War Zero, February 24th 2022, https://worldwarzero.com/magazine/2022/02/are-lower-emitting-bioengineered-animals-an-answer/?emci=19417730-a395-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&emdi=7eecb7dc-aa95-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&ceid=1763602, reported, " The meat industry is one of the world's largest emitters, responsible for about 15% of the world's greenhouse gases (GHGs) and an enormous source of methane , the short-lived greenhouse gas many times more potent than CO2 . But what solutions are available when so many worldwide count on meat as their primary source of protein?
         In order to reduce methane that comes from animals, one potential solution is to engineer them genetically . Scientists in Australia have effectively bred a type of sheep that emits 13% less methane than the average sheep. In the US, AquaBounty salmon are bred with genes from other fish to require less feed while growing year-round and twice as fast.
        Scientists are looking to apply these findings to cattle, as
20% of methane emissions from cows are related to the animal's genetic makeup. These innovations have prompted scientists to wonder whether this controversial option could be a lasting climate solution."
        Other sources suggest that animal diet is a factor in how much methane domestic animals produce. Much farmed cattle are fed a great deal of corn, which it has been reported is not natural for them, and as it does not digest as well as their natural food, eating it produces more methane. Experimenting with domestic animal feed to find out what is best for their wellness and produces the least greenhouse gas is a likely win-win enterprise.
        Meanwhile there are often negative side effects from bioengineering as opposed to careful animal breeding that always needed to be taken into account, and it is important to be careful to avoid too narrow GMO work, which is all too common. Indeed, today it is usualy wise to avoid eating most GMO food."

        "Study: Warming climate leads to more bark beetles killing trees than drought alone," New Mexico Political Report, December 23, 2021, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2021/12/23/study-warming-climate-leads-to-more-bark-beetles-killing-trees-than-drought-alone/?mc_cid=cb5065b09d&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported, "Looking at forests in California, the team of researchers found that western pine beetle infestations killed 30 percent more trees due to warmer temperatures than they would have killed under drought conditions alone.
        "While the study focused on California forests, study author Chonggang Xu, a senior LANL scientist, said he anticipates the trend will hold true for forests throughout the western United States, including in New Mexico."

         Catrin Einhorn, "Tree Planting Is Booming. Here’s How That Could Help, or Harm, the Planet: Reforestation can fight climate change, uplift communities and restore biodiversity. When done badly, though, it can speed extinctions and make nature less resilient," The New York Times, March 14, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/14/climate/tree-planting-reforestation-climate.html, reported, " As the climate crisis deepens, businesses and consumers are joining nonprofit groups and governments in a global tree planting boom. Last year saw billions of trees planted in scores of countries around the world. These efforts can be a triple win, providing livelihoods, absorbing and locking away planet-warming carbon dioxide, and improving the health of ecosystems.
        But when done poorly, the projects can worsen the very problems they were meant to solve. Planting the wrong trees in the wrong place can actually reduce biodiversity, speeding extinctions and making ecosystems far less resilient
."

         Raymond Zhong, "Water Supplies From Glaciers May Peak Sooner Than Anticipated: New satellite mapping of the world’s mountain ice suggests Earth’s glaciers may contain less water than previously thought," The New York Times, February 7, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/07/climate/glaciers-water-global-warming.html, reported, " The world’s glaciers may contain less water than previously believed, a new study has found, suggesting that freshwater supplies could peak sooner than anticipated for millions of people worldwide who depend on glacial melt for drinking water, crop irrigation and everyday use," according to a new study published in Nature Geoscience (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-021-00885-z).
.        " Worldwide, the study found 11 percent less ice in the glaciers than had been estimated earlier. In the high mountains of Asia, however, it found 37 percent more ice, and in Patagonia and the central Andes, 10 percent more."

        Martha C. White, "Extreme Weather and Rising Insurance Rates Squeeze Retirees: Homeowners’ insurance in high-risk states is becoming prohibitively expensive for older Americans who want to keep their homes," The New York Times, February 4, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/04/business/retirement-climate-change-homeowners-insurance.html, reported, " Many Americans’ plans to retire in a coastal Sunbelt state or a scenic mountain hamlet are on a collision course with extreme weather — and the property damage that follows."
        " After absorbing punishing losses from floods, hurricanes and wildfires in recent years, many insurers are re-evaluating their risk modeling practices. The upshot for many homeowners is higher property insurance bills. Others can find themselves struggling to get a policy at any price ."

        Jennifer Mcdermott "Report says new nuclear reactor is risky; utilities disagree," Santa Fe New Mexican, February 18, 2022, https://www.santafenewmexican.com/ap/report-says-new-nuclear-reactor-is-risky-utilities-disagree/article_5015314a-ebf5-54c8-9c5e-3d2d6f98765f.html, reported on a new type of small nuclear reactor that The Utah Associated Municipal Power Systems, a cooperative representing utilities in seven Western states, wants to build and operate six of at the Idaho National Laboratory, beginning in 2029, in their effort to cut greenhouse gases and limit climate change. " A new type of nuclear reactor that would provide carbon-free energy to at least four states in the Western U.S. poses financial risks for utilities and their ratepayers, according to a report released Thursday that was immediately criticized by the project’s owner and the company developing the reactor.
        The report by the Ohio-based Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis said the small modular nuclear reactor being developed by NuScale Power in Oregon is “too expensive, too risky and too uncertain.”
        To date, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, has only given safety approval to this one small reactor design, which is pending a ruling to fully certify it in the summer of 2022. About two-thirds of the states said in a survey that they consider nuclear power an element in reducing carbon emissions.

         Liz Alderman and Monika Pronczuk, "Europe Plans to Say Nuclear Power and Natural Gas Are Green Investments: The draft proposal could help unleash a wave of investment, but critics say both sources of energy cause damage to the environment," The New York Times, January 4, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/02/business/europe-green-investments-nuclear-natural-gas.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220105&instance_id=49485&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=78755&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " The European Union has drawn up plans to classify some nuclear power and natural gas plants as green investments that can help Europe cut planet-warming emissions, a landmark proposal that, if approved, could set off a resurgence of nuclear energy on the continent in the coming decades.
        The European Commission said it had begun consultations with European Union countries on the proposal, which is intended to provide a common set of definitions of what constitutes a “sustainable investment” in Europe . Any final plan can be blocked by a majority of member states or by the European Parliament."

        Posted by BeauHD, " Pan-European 'Supergrid' Could Cut 32% From Energy Costs," Slashdot, February 11, 2022 https://hardware.slashdot.org/story/22/02/11/0116239/pan-european-supergrid-could-cut-32-from-energy-costs#comments, reported, " A European wide 'supergrid' could cut almost a third from energy costs according to a new study from the UCD Energy Institute. TechXplore reports: Evaluating the capabilities of Europe's energy network, the study, commissioned by SuperNode, found that a pan-European transmission system would reduce energy costs by 32 percent compared to the current approach. The 32 percent cost reduction identified is borne primarily from the expansion of European power flows -- derestricting them to allow the location of renewable generation to be optimized, thereby significantly decreasing the total installed capacity. While this scenario proposes an increase in transmission capacity, the costs were found to be insignificant compared to the cost savings in generation investment over the same period."

         Ella Nilsen, "Solar energy projects are grinding to a halt in the US amid investigation into parts from China," CNN, May 6, 2022 , https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/06/politics/solar-energy-china-investigation-climate/index.html, reported, " The solar energy industry has been thrown into a panic and projects are grinding to a halt after the Biden administration launched an investigation that some solar CEOs worry could tank the industry.
        The Commerce Department
launched the probe in March into whether four countries in Southeast Asia that supply about 80% of US solar panels and parts -- Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam -- are using components from China that should be subject to US tariffs." The stopping of so many imported solar panels had caused the stopping of 318 solar projects by mid-April 2022, according to a survery, and as the hold up continues, more projects are expected to be delayed or cancelled.

         Jack Healy and Mike Baker, "As Miners Chase Clean-Energy Minerals, Tribes Fear a Repeat of the Past: Mining the minerals that may be needed for a green energy revolution could devastate tribal lands. The Biden administration will be forced to choose," The New York Times, December 27, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/27/us/mining-clean-energy-antimony-tribes.html, reported that the need for minerals for batteries and other items of green energy production is leading to plans for new mining operations that Indian nations fear will seriously pollute, and in some cases disfigure, tribal lands and sacred sites. For example, "President Biden came into office vowing to safeguard Native American resources like these and uphold the rights of tribes that have endured generations of land theft and broken treaties. But in the rolling headwaters of central Idaho, where mining interests have long overrun tribal rights, the administration’s promise is colliding with one of its other priorities: starting a revolution in renewable energy to confront climate change
        Deep in the Salmon River Mountains, an Idaho mining company, Perpetua Resources, is proposing a vast open-pit gold mine that would also produce 115 million pounds of antimony — an element that may be critical to manufacturing the high-capacity liquid-metal batteries of the future," that area tribes fear would seriously pollute streams and other waters, disrupting ecosystems, especially of salmon.
        In Arizona's Santa Rita Mountains, the Tohono O’odham, Pascua Yaqui and Hopi nations are objecting to a proposal by a Canadian mining company to dig an open-pit mine, while in Arizona's Big Sandy River Valley a planned lithium extraction operation might destroy a hot spring considered sacred by the Hualapai Tribe. Ongoing has been the fight of the leaders of the San Carlos Apache and others to stop a transfer of land at Oak Flats, near Phoenix,AZ, for a copper mining project that Native leader say would destroy an area of sacred ground.
        In Nevada, a mining company’s plan to dig for lithium in a dormant volcano is strongly opposed by the Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone nations.

         Peter Valdes-Dapena, "This California desert could hold the key to powering all of America's electric cars," CNN Business, May 11, 2022 , https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/11/business/salton-sea-lithium-extraction/index.html, reported, "Over the past few years, companies have been coming here [to the Salton Sea Basin in California] to extract a valuable metal, lithium, that the car industry needs as it shifts to making electric cars. Lithium is the lightest naturally occurring metal element on Earth, and, for that reason among others, it's important for electric car batteries, which must store a lot of electricity in a package that weighs as little as possible.
        What's more, with the Salton Sea Basin's unique geography, engineers and technicians can get the lithium with minimal environmental destruction, according to companies that are working there. In other places, lithium is taken from the earth using hard rock mining that leaves huge, ugly scars in the land. Here, it exists naturally in a liquid form, so extraction doesn't require mining or blasting."
        The mineral rich, including lithium sludge is deep underground in an active geothermal area, where the supper hot sludge has long being used to generate electricity, and now is a valuable, potentially environmental friendly source of needed minerals, that are being recovered from the sludge.

        Ashira Morris, "Brazilian Town is Losing at Least 5 Meters of Coast Per Year." World War Zero, February 16th 2022, https://worldwarzero.com/magazine/2022/02/brazilian-town-is-losing-at-least-5-meters-of-coast-per-year/?emci=bcb1d23c-5d8f-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&emdi=11c314a8-628f-ec11-a507-281878b83d8a&ceid=1763602, reported, " The Brazilian town Atafona , north of Rio de Janeiro, was one already familiar with extreme erosion. Its shoreline is among the 4% of global coasts that shrink five meters or more each year -- a pattern created in part by human activities like mining and agriculture, which have altered the flow of the town's river. With climate change, that figure has been as high as three to four meters in a matter of weeks."

        "Chile Writes Its Constitution, Confronting Climate Change Head On: Chile has lots of lithium, which is essential to the world’s transition to green energy. But anger over powerful mining interests, a water crisis and inequality has driven Chile to rethink how it defines itself," The New York Times, December 29, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/28/climate/chile-constitution-climate-change.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20211229&instance_id=48983&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=78211&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " in Chile, where a national reinvention is underway. After months of protests over social and environmental grievances, 155 Chileans have been elected to write a new constitution amid what they have declared a 'climate and ecological emergency.'”
        "Their work will not only shape how this country of 19 million is governed. It will also determine the future of a soft, lustrous metal, lithium, lurking in the salt waters beneath this vast ethereal desert beside the Andes Mountains." Chile is the world's second largest producer of Lithium, an essential component of batteries, after Australia. Huge amounts of the metal lie in brine under a desert, along with rich supplies of potassium . Chile has gotten rich on extraction of its minerals, including copper. The downsides have been great economic inequality with social and human- ill effects, along with serious environmental degradation, including the drying up of rivers and serious water shortages. The Socio-political-economic and environmental issues have stirred huge protests leading to the current constitutional rewriting process.

         Hydro Quebec created a huge lake in the far north several years ago to produce hydroelectric power. At the time, major environmental concerns were raised about the projects impact. Now, electric lines are under construction to bring some of that power south to Massachusetts. That involves cutting down trees and otherwise having an environmental impact to widen current electric line corridors. Completing the project, which would bring significant amounts of non-atmospheric warming electricity to New England, has been hotly debated, with opposition from Indigenous people, environmentalists and land owners, especially in Maine. There, a referendum voted to stop the project crossing the state has passed, and its legality is to be considered by the state supreme court. The case raises essential questions about what tradeoffs should be made in dealing with action that impact the environment, as virtually all usually do, to some extent positively and negatively. It raises the broad issues of where and how needed actions should be taken, once the what needs to be done has been determined - a decision that needs to consider the where and how. This is an ongoing concern when much is necessary to fight climate change and other of the interrelated environmental issues - including those involving where and how to place infrastructure ( David Gelles, "A Fight Over America’s Energy Future Erupts on the Canadian Border: Power companies, conservationists, local residents and two U.S. states are mired in an acrimonious dispute about hydroelectricity from Quebec," The New York Times, May 6, 2022, https://www.mlb.com/yankees/scores).

         Julia Conley, "Rising Chemical Pollution Crosses Crucial 'Planetary Boundary:' 'The pace that societies are producing and releasing new chemicals into the environment is not consistent with staying within a safe operating space for humanity,' said one scientist," Common Dreams, January 18, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/01/18/rising-chemical-pollution-crosses-crucial-planetary-boundary, reported, " The level of chemical pollution on Earth has crossed a 'planetary boundary' and now threatens global ecosystems that support all life, according to a new study on human-made substances whose production has rapidly increased in recent decades.
        Researchers at the Stockholm Resilience Center (SRC) examined the levels of 350,000 plastics, pesticides, industrial chemicals, and other chemicals and found that human activity is releasing so many of these substances each year that their production has altered 'the remarkably stable state Earth has remained within for 10,000 years—since the dawn of civilization.'
         'The pace that societies are producing and releasing new chemicals into the environment is not consistent with staying within a safe operating space for humanity,' said Patricia Villarrubia-Gómez, a PhD candidate and research assistant who contributed to the report.
         Plastics are a significant driver of the problem, with worldwide plastic production skyrocketing by 79% between 2000 and 2015.
        The authors of the report, published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology, drew on research from 2009 (https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries.html) in which a team of international scientists identified nine planetary boundaries that influence the planet's stability.
         The new study relates to 'novel entities,' or synthetic chemicals that are 'created by human activities with largely unknown effects on the Earth system,' according to the SRC.
        The novel entities boundary is the fifth to be crossed, according to scientists, after climate change and global heating, land-system change, biogeochemical flows, and the loss of biodiversity.
        Freshwater use, stratospheric ozone depletion, and ocean acidification are still within the "safe operating space" identified by scientists, but are also approaching the planetary boundaries
.
        Researchers at the SRC compared the rate of production of chemicals to the rate of release into the environment and found that authorities and regulators are not able to keep up with production rates in order to track the synthetic chemicals' impacts.
         'The rate at which these pollutants are appearing in the environment far exceeds the capacity of governments to assess global and regional risks, let alone control any potential problems,' said Bethanie Carney Almroth of the University of Gothenburg, who worked on the study, in a statement.
        Environmental politics researcher and writer Aaron Vansintjan noted that conservationist Rachel Carson warned of the effects of industrial chemicals in the book Silent Spring, published in 1962, yet chemical production accelerated in the decades that followed.
         'There has been a fifty-fold increase in the production of chemicals since 1950 and this is projected to triple again by 2050,' said Villarrubia-Gómez.
         The rapid rise in the release of chemicals has included the use of pesticides, which can wipe out beneficial insects that underpin ecosystems and help provide food to humans and other species.
         'Some of these pollutants can be found globally, from the Arctic to Antarctica, and can be extremely persistent,' said Carney Almroth. 'We have overwhelming evidence of negative impacts on Earth systems, including biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles.'
        The researchers said authorities must strongly regulate chemical production and impose strict limits on their release, just as world governments have introduced targets for limiting fossil fuel emissions.
        'And shifting to a circular economy is really important,' said Sarah Cornell, an associate professor at the SRC. 'That means changing materials and products so they can be reused not wasted, designing chemicals and products for recycling, and much better screening of chemicals for their safety and sustainability along their whole impact pathway in the Earth system.'
        Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."

         Kenny Stancil, "Global Plastic Pollution Is a 'Deadly Ticking Clock': Report: 'The damage done by rampant overproduction of virgin plastics and their lifecycle is irreversible—this is a threat to human civilization and the planet's basic ability to maintain a habitable environment,'" Common Dreams, January 18, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/01/18/global-plastic-pollution-deadly-ticking-clock-report, reported, " 'There is a deadly ticking clock counting swiftly down.'
        So says Tom Gammage, an ocean campaigner at the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), a United Kingdom-based group whose new report (https://eia-international.org/news/plastic-pollutions-deadly-ticking-clock-a-dire-emergency-for-people-and-the-planet/) warns that only a muscular global treaty can turn the tide against the life-threatening crisis of plastic pollution.
        Published on Tuesday, Connecting the Dots: Plastic Pollution and the Planetary Emergency assembles the latest scientific data to show how the unprecedented accumulation of toxic plastic particles 'directly undermines our health, drives biodiversity loss, exacerbates climate change, and risks generating large-scale harmful environmental changes.'
        Released in the wake of a landmark United Nations study (https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/press-release/comprehensive-assessment-marine-litter-and-plastic-pollution) that documented how plastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems has skyrocketed in recent years and is projected to more than double this decade and nearly triple by 2040 if governments fail to prevent fossil fuel and petrochemical companies from expanding the production of single-use plastics, EIA's report seeks to inform discussions at next month's U.N. Environment Assembly in Nairobi, Kenya, where member states will have a chance to commit to drastically reducing waste."

         Hiroko Tabuchi, "The World Is Awash in Plastic. Nations Plan a Treaty to Fix That: The new pact would be legally binding and could go beyond cleaning up plastic waste to curbs on future production," The New York Times, March 2, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/02/climate/global-plastics-recycling-treaty.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220304&instance_id=54896&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=84679&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, "With the bang of a gavel made of recycled plastic and a standing ovation, representatives of 175 nations agreed on Wednesday to begin writing a global treaty that would restrict the explosive growth of plastic pollution.
        The
agreement commits nations (https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/38522/k2200647_-_unep-ea-5-l-23-rev-1_-_advance.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y) to work on a broad and legally binding treaty that would not only aim to improve recycling and clean up the world’s plastic waste, but would encompass curbs on plastics production itself. That could put measures like a ban on single-use plastics, a major driver of waste, on the table."

         Damian Carrington, "Microplastics found in human blood for first time: Exclusive: The discovery shows the particles can travel around the body and may lodge in organ," The Guardian, March 24, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/mar/24/microplastics-found-in-human-blood-for-first-time?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220325&instance_id=56747&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=86590&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, " Microplastic pollution has been detected in human blood for the first time, with scientists finding the tiny particles in almost 80% of the people tested.
        The discovery shows the particles can travel around the body and may lodge in organs. The impact on health is as yet unknown. But researchers are concerned as microplastics cause damage to human cells in the laboratory and air pollution particles are already known to enter the body and cause millions of early deaths a year."

         Catrin Einhorn, "Alarming Levels of Mercury Are Found in Old Growth Amazon Forest
The findings, related to gold mining in Peru, provide new evidence of how people are altering ecosystems in dangerous ways around the world," The New York Times, January 28, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/28/climate/amazon-forest-mercury-peru.html, reported, " The protected old-growth forest in the Amazon of southeastern Peru appears pristine: Ancient trees with massive trunks grow alongside young, slender ones, forming a canopy so thick it sometimes feels to scientists like evening during the day.
        But a new analysis of what’s inside the forest’s leaves and birds’ feathers tells a different story: The same canopy that supports some of the richest biodiversity on the planet is also sucking up alarming levels of toxic mercury [released into the air by gold miners using the heavy metal in a burning process of separating out gold from river sediment
], according to a study published on Friday."

         The Prony Resources nickel mine processing plant in Goro, New Caledonia, an important source of the mineral used in batteries, has been a major polluter, against which many of the Island's Kanak have been protesting. Now, Tesla wants to purchase the mine to insure its source of the essential mineral, and mine it as responsibly and environmentally friendly as possible. If the sale goes through and Tesla is successful in its green mining plans, treating local people well, it could become a model on how to do what extracting remains necessary, having reduced that amount by extensive recycling ( Hannah Beech, "Race To The Future: Can a Tiny Territory in the South Pacific Power Tesla’s Ambitions?" The New York Times, December 30, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/30/world/asia/tesla-batteries-nickel-new-caledonia.html).

         Lisa Friedman, "Even Low Levels of Soot Can Be Deadly to Older People, Research Finds: The four-year air pollution study, which followed 68.5 million older Americans, was the first of its kind," New York Times, January 26, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/26/climate/air-pollution-study-epa.html, reported, "Older Americans who regularly breathe even low levels of pollution from smokestacks, automobile exhaust, wildfires and other sources face a greater chance of dying early, according to a major study (https://www.healtheffects.org/publication/assessing-adverse-health-effects-long-term-exposure-low-levels-ambient-air-pollution-0) released Wednesday."

        Henry Fountain, "A real-life lesson in wildfire control," New York Times Environmental E-mail, January 5, 2021, reported, "... when I recently visited a Nature Conservancy preserve in Oregon that had been burned in the huge Bootleg fire in July, things were different. There were stands that had been virtually incinerated, sure, but in other areas green, living trees far outnumbered the burned ones.
         Conservancy officials are starting research to study in detail why some areas fared better than others. But they’re pretty sure they already know a large part of the answer. They have been thinning and conducting controlled burns in parts of the preserve for nearly two decades, part of a program to better understand how those forest treatments can reduce the intensity of wildfires. And in what became a real-life experiment, the treated areas, particularly one that was both thinned and burned, largely survived.
        My article gives more details: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/05/climate/fire-forest-management-bootleg-oregon.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220105&instance_id=49485&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=78755&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927."

         Jack Ewing and Neal E. Boudette, "Why This Could Be a Critical Year for Electric Cars
Booming in a depressed market, battery-powered vehicles are a plus for the climate but pose a big threat to carmakers and parts suppliers that are slow to change," The New York Times, February 8, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/08/business/energy-environment/electric-cars-vehicles.html, reported, " Sales of cars powered solely by batteries surged in the United States, Europe and China last year, while deliveries of fossil fuel vehicles were stagnant. Demand for electric cars is so strong that manufacturers are requiring buyers to put down deposits months in advance. And some models are effectively sold out for the next two years.
        Battery-powered cars are having a breakthrough moment and will enter the mainstream this year as automakers begin selling electric versions of one of Americans’ favorite vehicle type: pickup trucks. Their arrival represents the biggest upheaval in the auto industry since Henry Ford introduced the Model T in 1908 and could have far-reaching consequences for factory workers, businesses and the environment. Tailpipe emissions are among the largest contributors to climate change."

         Jeff St. John, "US schools can subscribe to an electric school bus fleet at prices that beat diesel: Fleet-as-a-service offerings like those from Highland Electric and Thomas Built could help kick-start widespread EV adoption," Canary Media, March 18, 2022, https://www.canarymedia.com/articles/clean-fleets/us-schools-can-subscribe-to-an-electric-school-bus-fleet-at-prices-that-beat-diesel#commento, reported, "Electric school buses are a hot commodity. Billions of dollars of federal and state grants and incentives are flowing to U.S. school districts to help them electrify their fleets. By replacing diesel buses with clean and quiet battery-powered models, they can slash fuel and maintenance costs and cut air and noise pollution.
        For school districts that still struggle with the higher upfront costs of electric buses and the charging equipment needed to keep them running, companies including
Highland Electric Fleets and Thomas Built Buses have deals to help them get over the hump."

        "To Protect 'Web of Life,' California Proposal Would Ban Bee-Killing Neonics: 'Our pollinators are threatened. We know the cause, and it's time to take action,'" Common Dreams, February 16, 2022, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2022/02/16/protect-web-life-california-proposal-would-ban-bee-killing-neonics, reported, " Amid 'astounding losses' of bees in the U.S., a California Democrat on Tuesday introduced legislation for a state ban on nearly all non-agricultural uses of insecticides linked to pollinator and environmental harm.
        'Its passage in the most populous state in the nation would mark a turning point in the years-long battle to rein in neonics.'
        'Our pollinators are threatened. We know the cause, and it's time to take action,' said Assemblymember Rebecca Bauer-Kahan (D-), who introduced the measure.
        The proposal, AB 2146, targets imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, and acetamiprid. All five are part of a class of insecticides called neonicotinoids or "neonics." Their future use on places like home lawns or golf courses would be banned under the measure."

        "Climate-smart and regenerative agriculture: Transitioning towards sustainable farming," Deloitte, visited May 10, 2022, https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/consulting/articles/climate-smart-regenerative-agriculture.html?id=us:2pm:3ad:firmfy22:awa:greendot:em:advfut:cn:climatesmart:1x1:nyt:051022:1086086168, reported, " Deloitte’s new publication, developed collaboratively with the World Economic Forum, uses the results of an extensive farmer survey in the EU as a case study to outline how targeted investments in sustainable agriculture can provide positive economic benefits for farmers, improve ecological and climatic health, and build a more resilient global food supply.
         Farmers’ critical role in building sustainable and resilient food systems
        Food and agricultural systems are a cornerstone of society, feeding the world and accounting for more than one-fifth of jobs. As climate change continues to alter growing conditions, farmer livelihoods and food security will likely become increasingly threatened. Fortunately, a set of sustainable agriculture practices can reverse these trends and has the potential to transform global food production.
         This report calls for business leaders, policy makers, NGOs, academics, and farmers to come together to boost adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices. Our analysis finds that if an additional 20% of EU farmers begin climate-smart farming, by 2030 they can collectively increase their annual incomes by up to €9.3 billion, reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6%, and improve soil health over 14% of the EU’s agricultural land.
         Download the Deloitte executive summary: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/consulting/us-transforming-food-system-farmers-exec-summary.pdf.
         Climate-smart agriculture and the European Green Deal
         Climate-smart agriculture, which is sometimes referred to as regenerative agriculture or carbon farming, focuses on climate-smart inputs, agro-ecological practices, efficient irrigation technology, and precision farming techniques. It aims to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change, enhance soil health and biodiversity, and improve farmer income while producing additional high-quality food.
        Climate-smart agriculture lies at the heart of the EU’s efforts to achieve climate neutrality in the land-use sector by 2035. As part of the Farm to Fork Strategy under the European Green Deal, the 27-nation bloc has committed itself to removing at least as much carbon through land use as it produces, and to halve soil nutrient loss and chemical pesticide use by 2030.
        Read the full report: https://www.weforum.org/reports/transforming-food-systems-with-farmers-a-pathway-for-the-eu, Available on the World Economic Forum site.
         Four key focus areas to support farmers’ transition to climate-smart agriculture
        Achieving these ambitious but critical goals will require the buy-in not just of governments and business leaders, but of farmers themselves. For this report, we used survey results from over 1,600 farmers from seven countries to identify obstacles and opportunities to more widespread adoption of climate-smart agriculture. These insights inform four key areas of intervention necessary to support farmers in their transition to climate-smart agriculture."

        "Fighting Desertification: Associação do Povo Karão Jaguaribaras, Brazil,"Cultural Survival, April 25, 2022, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/fighting-desertification-associacao-do-povo-karao-jaguaribaras-brazil, KOEF Grant Partner Spotlight, reported, " The Karão Jaguaribaras Peoples live in the state of Ceará in eastern Brazil, especially in Ybatrytê, Sierra de Baturité, and adjacent areas. They are a community that has been living in under a continuous threat to their territories. The sustainable management of the environment, which includes the practice of agriculture, is fundamental to their way of life.
        The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the social, economic, and health vulnerability of many Indigenous communities. 'Our Karão Jaguaribaras Peoples believe that this pandemic that is plaguing the world is a sea of ​​environmental imbalance caused by human greed in search of exacerbated wealth. This is why we are taking concrete steps to combat desertification with educational efforts to recover degraded areas,' says Arly Karão, Project Manager.
        In 2021, through a grant from the Keepers of the Earth Fund, the Association of the Karão Jaguaribaras Peoples developed a project entitled 'Strategies to Prevent and Combat Desertification through the Indigenous Community of the Karão Jaguaribaras Peoples.' This project sought to positively influence their members by carrying out activities to strengthen the entire community. Their project directly benefited some 30 families, approximately 120 people, including children and youth.
        The final objective of the project was to promote the 'Buen Vivir', well being of the community. During the development of the project, activities such as walks through Karão Jaguaribaras territory were carried out. During the walks, native seeds were collected and community members talked about forest management, how to treat the land, and how to prevent and combat desertification.
        From the information collected through conversations and workshops, community members developed a management plan and a long-term environmental recovery plan for the degraded areas and areas in danger of desertification that were previously identified during walks. The Association also organized workshops about seed management and how to take care of native seedlings in the nursery. Another topic covered was beekeeping.
        Another important activity carried out by the Association was the acquisition and installation of a water pump for a deep well. This served to complement their activities in their fight against desertification. “One day we will reap the fruits of our efforts, even those who do not have the opportunity to meet us will benefit. This is Nature,” says Ruy Karão, President of the Associação about their work.
        The Keepers of the Earth Fund (KOEF) is an Indigenous Led Fund within Cultural Survival designed to support Indigenous Peoples’ community development and advocacy projects. Since 2017, through small grants and technical assistance, KOEF has supported 190 projects in 37 countries totaling $828,067. KOEF provides, on average, $5,000 grants to grassroots Indigenous-led communities, organizations, and traditional governments to support their self-determined development projects based on their Indigenous values. Predicated on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Cultural Survival uses a rights-based approach in our grantmaking strategies to support grassroots Indigenous solutions through the equitable distribution of resources to Indigenous communities.

        "Our Struggles to Protect the Nuevo Nahuizalco River and Our Culture," Cultural Survival, April 20, 2022, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/our-struggles-protect-nuevo-nahuizalco-river-and-our-culture, reported, Our history as Indigenous Peoples in El Salvador is very painful. We were invaded by the Spanish, who took away our culture and imposed a foriegn one on us in 1492. We fought to be free and in 1821 we supposedly managed to become an independent country, but in 1882 President Rafael Zaldívar ordered the repossession of our communal lands.
        Our people had many rich traditions. Our Nahuat grandparents say that on the day of conception, the movement of the moon was sought. When there was a full moon, an old man passed by playing the drum shouting, 'The day of engendering! The day of spawning!' That was when people could have sex so that their children would be born healthy and robust. They say that every time they built they played the drum, and as it sounded, people ran to help build houses and other structures.
        Everything was done in community, including the planting. When corn was planted, the drum was played and everyone helped plant, remembering that they had to plant three grains: one for the harvest, another for the great creator who germinated, and one for the brothers and sister who should not lack anything, giving them corn atol, rigua, or roasted corn. The other grain was to store and have beans and tortillas for the whole year.
         Although the government has taken our lands, in our communities it is about continuing with those traditions with the desire to survive and revitalize our language. Our pains were not only due to the expropriation of our territory, but also because there was a president who committed a great massacre, the largest in the history of our country. To be born Indigenous back then was to be born to die, because this president tried to exterminate us. In 1928 an Indigenous man was elected as municipal mayor, but because he was Indigenous, he was not given the appointment. To silence him, in 1932 the army shot him.
        Our great-grandfather and great-uncle say that the children of those who were murdered dug their own graves and were thrown there already dead. The riverbeds ran red with the blood of many brothers. They took away our lands and denied our existence, and they continue to do so, rigging censuses to say that we don't exist. The government agreements to sign peace accords did not take into account the Indigenous Peoples, and although the government apologized, it left us without resources from the State ministries.
         They say that we do not exist, but they maintain the interest of taking away our resources through transnational companies by imposing dams on our rivers, diverting them and changing their normal course and sequestering them in tubes without us being able to use them. Without the river we cannot harvest our food, like the crab, the stone-sucking fish (which has resisted dying like our culture), the tacuazín, the armadillo. The massive felling of trees that they do to install dams, they take away our trees like the Jabillo, unique in these territories, which carries the son (traditional music in Central America) in its flowers, and then in its seeds, which fly like the seagull crossing the mountains in a single melody.
         With the destruction of the environment they destroy the tule, which, according to the Popol Vuh, is a sacred plant. Grandmothers use its material to make the petate, as well as fine crafts to survive and earn their daily bread. There are also vines that make the chairs we rest in. In the river, we can go to bathe and play. When a morning begins with the songs of birds such as the chiltota, the mountain pigeon, the guinea fowl, we wonder why, if they say they protect wildlife, they allow companies to come to our territories. We denounce these companies as illegal because they do not present Environmental Impact Studies and continue to build more hydroelectric dams in our territories. There are currently seven of them and an eighth is being planned, but it has not been carried out because we are resisting the deception that speaks to us of progress but leaves our impoverished territories even more impoverished.
         The health ministry says we should eat fish twice a week, but they take away our right to go fishing because they dry up the rivers. Medicinal plants also dry up because they cut down the trees and dry up the riverbanks. There will no longer be plants like chichipince, which is used for menstrual pain, or siguapate to control fever.
         The Environmental Impact Study of the New Nahuizalco Small Hydroelectric Power Plant project presents inconsistencies, so we want to know why a second consultation has been called for, of article 25, literal A of the Environmental Law, and why it has been resumed even though the project was denied in July 2014. To make the problem worse, we had to consult the Environmental Impact Study in the Municipal Mayor's Office of Nahuizalco during the pandemic, and in doing so many of us contracted Covid-19. Many grandparents suffered, but they had to present their point of view.
         We express our great concern about the letter issued by the director of Cultural Heritage in favor of the Nuevo Nahuizalco II small hydroelectric plant project in the area of ​​the Sensunapan River, Sonsonate, El Salvador. It was declared a Humanity Reserve belonging to the Cordillera Ilamatepec in 2007 by UNESCO, but it continues to be highly exploited and stressed.
        We propose
:
        A comprehensive and independent Environmental Impact Study, since we as Indigenous Peoples have our own ordinance on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
        The denial of the permit for the New Nahuizalco II Small Hydroelectric Power Plant.
        Elaboration of a real, comprehensive development plan for the other dams that are illegal, so that the problems that we as Indigenous People have historically suffered can be resolved.
        The communities must be aware of this process so that the power plant is not approved, and so that we can present an Environmental Impact Study in accordance with international laws and the cosmovision of Indigenous Peoples.
        Cital Community Digital TV Radio received a grant from Cultural Survival's Indigenous Community Media Fund in 2021. The Indigenous Community Media Fund provides opportunities for international Indigenous radio stations to strengthen their infrastructure and broadcast systems and creates training opportunities for journalism, broadcasting, audio editing, technical skills, and more for radio journalists from Indigenous communities around the world. In 2021, the Indigenous Community Media Fund supported 57 media projects in 23 countries, totaling $340,500."

         Appleton, WI asked its residents not to mow their lawns in May 2022 in the hopes that the growth of wild flowers and other weeds would help the falling population of bees recover (Anne Readel, ""'No Mow May' Is Saving Bees Across Wisconsin ," The New York Times, April 4 , 2022).

        Ryan Mandelbaum, "If Rover Can Make It Here, Perhaps Bald Eagles Can Make It Anywhere: A white-headed raptor has been preying on smaller birds in Central Park. It’s come a long way since conservationists affixed aluminum bands to its legs four years ago," The New York Times, February 4, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/04/science/bald-eagle-central-park-rover.html, reported, "Visitors to Central Park’s reservoir in New York are taking in a drama filled with feathers. Its star performer, thrilling parkgoers and terrorizing gulls, is Rover, a bald eagle.
         The city’s birders have been tracking Rover for two years , and some point to his ongoing story as demonstrating the conservation benefits of attaching aluminum bands to the legs of threatened bird species when they are young. Rover’s arrival in the five boroughs also adds to mounting evidence of a return to urban areas by birds of prey. If Rover can make a home in and around Central Park, perhaps even more eagles will fill the city’s skies in the years ahead."

        Buffalo across the Northern U.S. mountain states, including on Indian reservations, are being sickened and killed by a microorganism, Mycoplasma bovis (Mitch Smith, "Microscopic Killer Decimates Buffalo Herds and Baffles Scientists ," The New York Times, March 13, 2022).

        "World Bank sells first 'rhino' bond to help South Africa's conservation efforts," Reuters, March 24, 2022, https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/world-bank-sells-first-rhino-bond-help-safricas-conservation-efforts-2022-03-24/?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220325&instance_id=56747&nl=climate-forward&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=86590&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927 " The World Bank has issued the world's first wildlife conservation bond, raising $150 million to help efforts to increase the endangered black rhino population in South Africa, the bank said in a statement on Thursday.
        The five-year 'rhino bond' issued on Wednesday will pay investors returns based on the rate of growth of black rhino populations at South Africa's Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) and the Great Fish River Nature Reserve (GFRNR), the bank said."

        "House Passes Key Environmental Provisions in America COMPETES Act to Strengthen U.S. Leadership and Hold Chinese Government Accountable: Oceana Applauds Efforts to End U.S. Shark Fin Trade, Illegal Fishing, and Use of Drift Gillnets," Oceana, Press Release Date: February 4, 2022, https://usa.oceana.org/press-releases/house-passes-key-environmental-provisions-in-america-competes-act-to-strengthen-u-s-leadership-and-hold-chinese-government-accountable/, Contact: Dustin Cranor, APR dcranor@oceana.org 954.348.1314, eported, "Today, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the America Creating Opportunities for Manufacturing, Pre-Eminence in Technology, and Economic Strength (America COMPETES) Act of 2022 , which includes key provisions to strengthen U.S. leadership on issues that threaten Americans, our oceans, and human rights, while also holding the Chinese government accountable and leveling the playing field for U.S. fishers. The bill’s provisions include 1) a ban on the buying and selling of shark fins in the United States; 2) closing the U.S. market to illegally sourced seafood and giving the government more tools to address illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing; and 3) ending the use of deadly large mesh drift gillnets in U.S. waters. This bill will now be conferenced with similar legislation that passed the Senate last June before it heads to President Biden’s desk for signing."

         Brad Plumer, "How Billions in Infrastructure Funding Could Worsen Global Warming: Highway expansions tend to bring more greenhouse gas emissions. A few states are trying to change that dynamic, but it won’t be easy," The New York Times, February 14, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/10/climate/highways-climate-change-traffic.html, reported that if states use the current billions in federal infrastructure funding to expand highways, the result could be a substantial increase in global warming amid more of several kinds of air pollution. "...widening highways and paving new roads often just spurs people to drive more, research shows. And as concerns grow about how tailpipe emissions are heating the planet, Colorado is among a handful of car-dominated states that are rethinking road building.
        In December, Colorado adopted a first-of-its-kind climate change regulation that will push transportation planners to redirect funding away from highway expansions and toward projects that cut vehicle pollution, such as buses and bike lanes."

         Catrin Einhorn, "Wolves Will Regain Federal Protection in Much of the U.S.: A federal judge has overturned the Trump-era decision that removed the predators from the endangered species list," The New York Times, February 10, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/10/climate/wolves-endangered-species-list.html?campaign_id=54&emc=edit_clim_20220216&instance_id=53372&nl=climate-fwd%3A&regi_id=52235981&segment_id=82942&te=1&user_id=2984790c14170290245238c0cd4fd927, reported, "Gray wolves will regain federal protection across most of the lower 48 United States following a court ruling Thursday that struck down a Trump administration decision to take the animals off the endangered species list.
        Senior District Judge Jeffrey S. White, of United States District Court for the Northern District of California, found that the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, in declaring wolf conservation a success and removing the species from federal protection, did not adequately consider threats to wolves outside of the Great Lakes and Northern Rocky Mountains where they have rebounded most significantly."

        "Mexico’s Supreme Court Votes to Protect Veracruz Reef from Port Expansion," Earth Justice, February 23, 2022, https://earthjustice.org/brief/2022/mexicos-supreme-court-votes-to-protect-veracruz-reef-from-port-expansion, reported, " The highest court in Mexico ruled unanimously in February to protect sea turtles and other marine life in the Veracruz Reef System from a port expansion project.
         This decision protects the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico from the destructive construction of new navigation channels, land access points, and other port facilities. The ruling preserves habitats for several protected species including the critically endangered hawksbill turtle.
        This ruling sets new legal precedent that will force stricter scrutiny of the environmental impact of future projects like this one. This will help protect not only marine biodiversity but also communities that face air and water pollution from the development of industrial projects.
        What Happened
        Our partners, the Mexican Center for Environmental Law (CEMDA), filed suit against the port expansion in 2016. The suit stated that new construction based upon the port’s faulty environmental assessment process threatened the nearby Veracruz Reef.
        To support CEMDA’s suit, Earthjustice and AIDA (The Interamerican Association for Environmental Defense) jointly filed a “friend of the court” submission earlier this year. The brief argued that the right to a healthy environment and access to justice should give anyone with a connection to a threatened ecosystem the right to sue in court to protect that ecosystem.
The court recognized Mexico’s obligation under international and constitutional law to allow easier access to the courts for Mexicans seeking to protect the environment.
The court also found that the port’s environmental assessment process was segmented in a way that obscured the impact of the entire project. The court held that the right to a healthy environment requires assessments to analyze all significant impacts, including cumulative impacts from different parts of the project over time.
         Why It’s Important
        This victory will help protect the Veracruz Reef System, which is globally recognized as a UNESCO biosphere reserve and Ramsar Wetland of International Importance. Protecting the health of the reef will have beneficial effects for communities in Mexico and also the broader Gulf ecosystem. The reef also helps to reduce the flood impact of storm surges and hurricanes, which have increased in frequency and intensity due to climate change.
This decision recognizes the wide-reaching impacts that environmental damage causes to communities and ecosystems, as well as the importance of a full environmental analysis before big infrastructure projects are approved.
         What happens next?
        The decision requires the port to completely reassess the impact the expansion would have on the Veracruz Reef and the surrounding community. The decision shows that the country’s highest court supports protecting the human right to a healthy environment and enforcing a comprehensive environmental assessment before projects that have the potential to cause harm are approved.
        This victory will have wide-reaching and beneficial impacts that protect communities, ecosystems, and the climate. Not only does it protect the Veracruz Reef, it serves as a guidepost for future court decisions in Mexico and Latin America more broadly and places a high value on the importance of environmental protection to community health."

        "Lighted Nets Dramatically Reduce Bycatch of Sharks and Other Wildlife While Making Fishing More Efficient: LED illuminated nets reduce bycatch of sharks and skates by an incredible 95 percent while maintaining catch rates of target species," WCS, January 21, 2022, https://newsroom.wcs.org/News-Releases/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/17174/Lighted-Nets-Dramatically-Reduce-Bycatch-of-Sharks-and-Other-Wildlife-While-Making-Fishing-More-Efficient.aspx
Download the Study: https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(21)01737-1?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982221017371%3Fshowall%3Dtrue, reported, " In a win-win for commercial fisheries and marine wildlife, researchers have found that using lighted nets greatly reduced accidental bycatch of sharks, rays, sea turtles, and unwanted finfish.
        Publishing their results in the journal Current Biology, the researchers found that lighted gillnets reduced total fisheries bycatch by 63 percent, which included a 95 percent reduction in sharks, skates, and rays, an 81 percent reduction in Humboldt squid, and a 48 percent reduction in unwanted finfish, while maintaining catch rates and market value of target fish.
        Authors of the study include Jesse Senko, Assistant Research Professor, Arizona State University; Hoyt Peckham, Director of Small-scale Fisheries, Wildlife Conservation Society; Daniel Aguilar-Ramirez, Fisheries Biologist, National Fisheries and Aquaculture Institute of Mexico; and John Wang, Fisheries Ecologist, NOAA Fisheries.
        Gillnets are one of the most extensively used fishing gear in coastal regions throughout the world’s oceans, but often catch other animals not targeted by fishers. These include endangered, threatened, and protected species such as sharks, sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds, but also other fish species as well as non-marketable juvenile target fish species. These animals are often dead, injured, and dumped overboard. The incidental capture of non-target species – known as “bycatch” – in coastal gillnet fisheries has contributed to declines in endangered species worldwide and has also impacted coastal ecosystems.
        Over the past decade, illuminating gillnets with LED lights has emerged as an effective tool to reduce bycatch of endangered sea turtles in coastal gillnet fisheries. However, the effects of net illumination on other vulnerable species, total fisheries bycatch, and efficiency of fishery operations have never been examined.
        The researchers attached green LED lights every 10 meters on gillnets along the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and were surprised to find that the lighted nets almost eliminated bycatch of sharks, skates, and rays, an ancient group of animals that has declined globally due to bycatch and illegal fishing.
        Moreover, the illuminated nets reduced the time it took fishers to retrieve and disentangle the nets by 57 percent, making this technology attractive for fishers looking to increase their efficiency independently of any concern for bycatch. This resulted from fishers needing to remove fewer entangled animals in the illuminated nets, which included considerably fewer turtles, sharks, skates, rays, squid, and small finfish, which can be time consuming, difficult, and even dangerous to remove from nets. In practical terms, this means that fishers can save more than an hour per trip when fishing with illuminated nets, which can also help improve the quality of their catch.
        Said Jesse Senko of Arizona State University and lead author of the study: “These results demonstrate that the potential benefits of illuminated nets extend well beyond sea turtles, while demonstrating the strong promise for net illumination to mitigate discarded bycatch in similar coastal gillnet fisheries throughout the world’s oceans.”
        Said Hoyt Peckham, a co-author on the study and Director of Small-scale Fisheries at the Wildlife Conservation Society: [Gillnets are ubiquitous because they are inexpensive and catch everything that passes them. This work is exciting because it provides a practical solution increasing gillnets' selectivity and avoiding their bycatch. Emerging technologies should help us incorporate this kind of lighting into gillnet materials so that adopting this solution will become a no-brainer for fishers.]
        Said John Wang, a co-author on the study and Fisheries Ecologist at NOAA Fisheries’ Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center in Honolulu: 'Making life easier for fishers by reducing the amount of time untangling bycatch is equally essential as reducing the bycatch biomass in nets. It is important for fishers to know that there are tangible benefits for them. This is critical for the adoption of such technologies by the fishing industry.'
        WCS is working in many costal nations to reduce the bycatch of iconic megafauna in gillnet fisheries, such as dolphins, sharks and rays. However, to date there have been limited technical solutions that would reduce that bycatch while allowing continued catches of the species the fishers set out to catch, and often those catches have key livelihood and food security implications. This work provides a possible means of safeguarding threatened megafauna in their final strongholds around the world, and will be explored further as part of WCS’s global marine conservation effort."
        [Note: The Bronx Zoo, where WCS is located, on the one side has been engaged in good conservation efforts, but on the other side has been stuck in long proven wrong notions that people are separate from nature, leading it to support removal of Indigenous peoples, proven to be the best conservators, from their homelands in nature reserves, leading to very serious human and Indigenous rights violations, as often discussed in these pages].

        In New Zealand, at Lake Rotoma, invasive weeds dumped into the lake by people dumping in the contents of unwanted goldfish tanks have blanketed the lake, disseminating the crat fish population. Local Maori, the Te Arawa, have applied traditional knowledge to successfully suppress the weed and bring back the cray fish. They have been doing this by using modern diving techniques to place woven mats in the lake, traditionally used to cross water and gather food in shallow water and swamps (Pete McKenezie, "Repelling an Eco Threat with an Old Mori Tool ," The New York Times, June 2, 2022).

         In North America, avian flu has been killing both millions of domestic chickens and large numbers of wild birds, including raptors, among them bald eagles (Sabrina Imbler, "Avian Flu Takes Toll on Majestic Birds of Prey, Including Dozens of Bald Eagles," The New York Times, April 22,2022).

         Isabel Kershner, "Israel Faces a Severe Blow to Wildlife Amid Outbreak of Avian Flu: Thousands of migratory cranes have died and more than half a million chickens have been culled as the country tries to contain a deadly bird virus," The New York Times, December 29, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/29/world/middleeast/israel-avian-flu.html, reported, " Israel is acting to contain a severe outbreak of avian flu that has already led to mass culling of infected poultry and has caused the deaths of about 5,000 migratory cranes in a popular nature reserve in the north of the country."

        Thomas McNamee, "A Slaughter of Wolves Like This Hasn’t Been Seen in a Century," The New York Times, January 17, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/17/opinion/wolves-endangered-yellowstone.html, reported that lawmakers in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming have removed all restrictions from killing wolves and allow bounty payments. "Lawmakers in those states have resumed their longstanding war on gray wolves now that the federal government no longer protects them as threatened with extinction in the region. In all three states, even wolf pups can be killed.
         In the face of this all-out assault, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced in September that it would begin a 12-month review to determine whether 'potential increases in human-caused mortality may pose a threat' to the wolves, perhaps exacerbated by new, more permissive regulations in Idaho and Montana. Those two states are home to about 75 percent of the gray wolf population in the Northern Rockies."

         The World Trade Organization has been attempting for 20 years to achieve a worldwide agreement to significantly reduce subsidies to the fishing industry as are seen as a major cause of the serious overfishing that is moving some important fish stocks toward collapse (Peter Algeier and Michael Punke, "The World Can't Keep Fishing Like This Century," The New York Times, January 17, 2022).

         Chris Aadland, "Working to save Chinook salmon: The Coquille Indian Tribe wants to be named a co-manager of the Coquille River, a proposal backed by local governments, watershed associations and business groups," ICT, February 1, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/working-to-save-chinook-salmon, reported that the Coquille Tribe has been collaborating with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to save endangered salmon, "And the tribe, which says it has the resources and expertise to aggressively tackle the decline, wants to take its work with the state further.
        The
Coquille Tribe has requested, with the support of many of the region’s local governments and other organizations, to be named co-manager of the river along with ODFW. Tribal leaders say that sort of formal arrangement would guarantee the tribe has a seat at the table in decisions surrounding management of the Coquille River watershed, especially because, they say, ODFW doesn’t have the resources to adequately address the urgent problems that have led to the dramatic reduction in fall-run Chinook salmon numbers."
         The Penguin population is becoming unbalanced by climate change as qarming on one side of Antarctica reduces and threatens the ice and food the birds need (Henty Fountain, "Climate change Unbalances Penguin," The New York Times, Population, April 12, 2022).


        "Wildlife conservation groups secure agreement from feds to evaluate Southern Rockies for lynx critical habitat," Western Environmental Law Center, April 26, 2022, https://westernlaw.org/wildlife-conservation-groups-secure-agreement-from-feds-to-evaluate-southern-rockies-for-lynx-critical-habitat/, reported, "Late yesterday, the District Court of Montana approved a legal agreement wildlife conservation groups secured with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service compelling the agency to revise its Canada lynx critical habitat rule to evaluate territory in the wild cat’s southern Rocky Mountains range essential to its recovery. The groups sued in 2020 over the agency’s failure to comply with a 2016 court order over the issue. The Service has now agreed to evaluate the southern Rockies for inclusion as critical habitat in a proposed revision to its Canada lynx critical habitat rule by November 21, 2024. The Service will then provide the public an opportunity to comment and submit data regarding the proposal before finalizing a rule in 2025.
        'We are hopeful today’s agreement will combine with our other Canada lynx victories to give this snow-dependent big cat a fighting chance at survival in the face of our warming climate,” said John Mellgren, general counsel at the Western Environmental Law Center. “We have had to push the Fish and Wildlife Service for every inch of progress on Canada lynx recovery efforts, and are hopeful the agency is beginning a new chapter of good-faith recovery efforts for this ecologically significant and iconic wild cat.”
        Critical habitat is area designated by the federal government as essential to the survival and recovery of a species protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Once designated, federal agencies must make special efforts to protect critical habitat from damage or destruction. In 2014, the Service designated approximately 38,000 acres of critical habitat for threatened lynx, but chose to exclude the lynx’s entire southern Rocky Mountain range, from south-central Wyoming, throughout Colorado, and into north-central New Mexico. These areas are vital to the iconic cat’s survival and recovery in the western U.S., where lynx currently live in small and sometimes isolated populations.
        'Lynx were virtually eliminated from Colorado in the 1970s as a result of cruel trapping, poisoning and development that lay waste to their habitat,' said Lindsay Larris, wildlife program director at WildEarth Guardians, based in Denver. 'This settlement agreement is the first step in what will be a long road to true recovery for the lynx, but we are cautiously optimistic that it will result in thousands of acres of protected habitat for this majestic wild cat to return to its home in the Southern Rockies.'
        'Colorado’s high country is an important place for lynx, especially in the face of climate change, and lynx are a vital part of the landscape in the Southern Rockies. Lynx habitat needs to be protected here to ensure the species will continue to recover,' said Peter Hart, legal director at Wilderness Workshop. 'This settlement is an important step in that direction.'
        Perplexingly, the Service’s latest designation decreased existing protections by 2,593 square miles compared to a 2013 plan. In doing so, the Service excluded much of the cat’s historic and currently occupied, last best habitat in the southern Rockies and other areas from protection. In its 2016 order, the court found the Service failed to follow the science showing that lynx are successfully reproducing in Colorado, and therefore excluding Colorado from the cat’s critical habitat designation “runs counter to the evidence before the agency and frustrates the purpose of the ESA.”
        Today’s legal agreement institutes a hard, legally binding deadline of November 21, 2024 for the Service to publish a lynx critical habitat rule proposal, along with frequent progress reports, also legally binding, due to the agency’s long record of negligence and delay on the subject of Canada lynx recovery actions.
        Canada lynx background:
        Canada lynx, medium-sized members of the feline family, are habitat and prey specialists. Heavily reliant on snowshoe hare, lynx tend to be limited in both population and distribution to areas where hare are sufficiently abundant. Like their preferred prey, lynx are specially adapted to living in mature boreal forests with dense cover and deep snowpack. The species and its habitat are threatened by climate change, logging, development, motorized access, and trapping, which disturb and fragment the landscape, increasing risks to lynx and their prey.
        The Service first listed lynx as threatened under the ESA in 2000. However, at that time the Service failed to protect any lynx habitat, impeding the species’ survival and recovery. Lynx habitat received no protection until 2006, and that initial critical habitat designation fell short of meeting the rare cat’s needs and the ESA’s standards. After two additional lawsuits brought by conservationists challenging the Service’s critical habitat designations culminated in 2008 and 2010, a district court in Montana left the agency’s lynx habitat protection in place while remanding it to the Service for improvement. This resulted in the habitat designation that was remanded for improvement again in 2016.
        In 2014, the U.S. District Court for the District of Montana also ruled that the Service violated the ESA by failing to prepare a recovery plan for lynx after a more than 12-year delay. The court ordered the Service to complete a recovery plan for lynx or determine that such a plan would not promote the conservation of lynx by January 15, 2018. The Service ultimately determined that a recovery plan would not promote lynx conservation. The groups in today’s announcement and others sued and secured an agreement from the Service to abandon its plans to remove endangered species protections for lynx as well as complete a draft recovery plan by a tentative deadline of Dec. 1, 2024.
        The Service’s 2017 Species Status Assessment analyzes lynx population centers’ “probably of persistence”—their likelihood of surviving to the year 2100—under its present regulatory framework as follows ( map):
Unit 1: Northern Maine – 50%
Unit 2: NE Minnesota – 35%
Unit 3: NW Montana/SE Idaho – 78%
Unit 4: Washington – 38%
Unit 5: Greater Yellowstone – 15%
Unit 6: Western Colorado – 50%
        The lynx Species Status Assessment paints a bleak picture for lynx, noting only one geographic unit (Unit 3 – MT and ID) “has a high (78%) probability of supporting resident lynx by 2100” and noting the remaining geographic units “were deemed to have a 50 percent or greater likelihood of functional extirpation…by the end of the century” [SSA at 6].
Studies show species with designated critical habitat under the ESA are more than twice as likely to have increasing populations than those species without. Similarly, species with adequate habitat protection are less likely to suffer declining populations and more likely to be stable. The ESA allows designation of both occupied and unoccupied habitat key to the recovery of listed species, and provides an extra layer of protection especially for animals like lynx that have an obligate relationship with a particular landscape type.
        Contacts:
        John Mellgren, Western Environmental Law Center, 541-359-0990, mellgren@westernlaw.org
Lindsay Larris, WildEarth Guardians, 310-923-1465, llarris@wildearthguardians.org
Peter Hart, Wilderness Workshop, 303-475-4915, Peter@wildernessworkshop.org."

        Manan Luthra, "Australia Declares Koalas an Endangered Species: Years of drought, fires and habitat loss have drastically reduced the population of the iconic marsupial," The New York Times, February 11, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/11/world/australia/koala-endangered-species.html, reported, " The Australian government on Friday declared the koala an endangered species, as drought, bush fires, disease and habitat loss have drastically reduced the numbers of an animal that is an emblem of the country’s unique wildlife.
        The announcement, by the country’s environment minister, came two years after a parliamentary inquiry predicted that koalas could be extinct by 2050 without urgent government intervention."

         Indigenous farm workers from Mexico have not only been complaining about their low pay and working conditions but have objected to the soil and broader ecological damage of the methods of California grape growers. They present traditional Indigenous methods that grow better crops in harmony with the environment ( Brooke Anderson, "Indigenous Farmworkers Can Show How to Heal Our Burning Planet: Grape harvesters share traditional ecological knowledge to right our relationship with the land—and each other," In These Times, January 26, 2022, https://inthesetimes.com/article/indigenous-farmers-ecological-knowledge-climate-change-global-warming-winery-wineries)

         Climate change has in several ways endangered the growing of wasabi in Japan, a fiery stapple in the nation's cooking (Motoko Rich and Makiko Inoue, "In Japan, 'a sense of Crisis' for a Fiery Staple of Local Cuisine," The New York Times, February 6, 2022

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U.S. Developments

        Many of the reports in this issue of U.S. government legislation, agency action, and court decisions are informed by electronic flyers from Hobbs, Straus, Dean and Walker, LLP, 2120 L Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20037, http://www.hobbsstraus.com. Reports from Indian Country Today Media Network, from the web, are listed as from ICTMN.

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Presidential Actions

        " A Proclamation on Missing Or Murdered Indigenous Persons Awareness Day, 2022," May 4, 2022, Presidential Actions, https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2022/05/04/a-proclamation-on-missing-or-murdered-indigenous-persons-awareness-day-2022/, stated, "For generations, Indigenous persons, including American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians, have been forced to mourn a missing or murdered loved one without the answers and support they deserve. On Missing or Murdered Indigenous Persons Awareness Day, we remember these victims and their families, and commit to working with Tribal Nations and Native communities to achieve justice and healing.
The Federal Government has an obligation to ensure that cases of missing or murdered persons are met with swift and effective action. My Administration is fully committed to investigating and resolving these cases through a coordinated law enforcement response, as well as intervention and prevention efforts. We are also dedicated to researching the underlying causes of this violence and to working with Native communities to address them.
The safety and well-being of all Native Americans continues to be a top priority for my Administration. That is why during my first year in office, at the first White House Tribal Nations Summit, I issued an Executive Order directing Federal agencies to improve public safety and criminal justice for Native Americans and to address the crisis of missing or murdered Indigenous people. This includes implementing a coordinated Federal law enforcement strategy that supports Tribal and other local law enforcement efforts. It also strengthens prevention, early intervention, and survivor services while improving data collection, analysis, and information sharing.
For far too long, justice for Indigenous communities has been elusive. We must improve our investigations to resolve missing or murdered cases while supporting victims and their families. Toward that aim, the Department of Justice is working closely with Tribal Nations to develop regionally appropriate guidelines for these cases. The Department of Justice has created a dedicated steering committee to oversee and coordinate this critical work, including an outreach services liaison for Federal criminal cases in Indian Country.
This March, I signed into law the Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act of 2022. This important law expands special criminal jurisdiction of Tribal courts to cover non-Native perpetrators of sexual assault, child abuse, stalking, sex trafficking, and assaults on Tribal law enforcement officers on Tribal lands and supports the development of a pilot project to enhance access to safety for survivors in Alaska Native villages.
My Administration understands that Native people, particularly survivors of violence, know best what their communities need to feel safe. That is why we must work hand in hand with Tribal partners through each phase of the justice system to create solutions that are victim-centered, trauma-informed, and culturally appropriate.
Our Nation’s failure to address this ongoing tragedy not only demeans the dignity of each Indigenous person who goes missing or is murdered — it undermines the humanity of us all. Today and every day, we must continue to stand up for Indigenous people, and we must never forget the thousands of unsolved cases that continue to cry out for justice and healing. As a Nation, we must answer that call and work together to achieve the promise of America for all Americans.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOSEPH R. BIDEN JR., President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 5, 2022, as Missing or Murdered Indigenous Persons Awareness Day. I call on all Americans and ask all levels of government to support Tribal governments and Tribal communities’ efforts to increase awareness of the issue of missing or murdered Indigenous persons through appropriate programs and activities.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fourth day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-sixth.
Joseph R. Biden Jr.

        Tribal Funding under the $1.2 billion bipartisan federal infrastructure act has set aside $13 billion for tribal infrastructure (From: Joaqlin Estus, "Released: Tribal playbook to infrastructure dollars: For the ‘largest investment in tribal infrastructure in American history for Indian country,’" ICT, June 1, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/released-tribal-playbook-to-infrastructure-dollars: Bipartisan Infrastructure Law tribal set asides  May 31, 2022 (Courtesy White House)
        Indian Nations are also eligible to apply for other funding under the act as stated by the White House in, "BUILDING A BETTER AMERICA" https://www.whitehouse.gov/build/:
" Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Rural Playbook: https://www.whitehouse.gov/build/rural/
Briefing Room: https://www.whitehouse.gov/build/briefing-room/
Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Six-Month Anniversary: https://www.whitehouse.gov/build/six-month-anniversary/
Technical Assistance Guide: https://www.whitehouse.gov/build/technical-assistance-guide/
Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Tribal Playbook: https://www.whitehouse.gov/build/bipartisan-infrastructure-law-tribal-playbook/
Delivering Results from President Biden’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law
President Biden forged consensus and compromise between Democrats, Republicans, and Independents to demonstrate our democracy can deliver big wins for the American people. After decades of talk on rebuilding America’s crumbling infrastructure, President Biden delivered the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law – a historic investment in America that will change people’s lives for the better and get America moving again.
Help build a better America. Apply now for jobs to support the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law: https://bil.usajobs.gov/Search/Results?mco=10&p=1
A Guidebook to the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law
Our Administration is committed to maximizing transparency so communities across America know what to apply for, who to contact, and how to get ready to rebuild. That’s why we’ve created a guidebook for state, local, tribal, and territorial leaders. This guidebook is a roadmap to the funding available under the law, as well as an explanatory document that shows, in as much detail as currently available, program-by-program information.
Read the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Guidebook: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf.
TRANSPORTATION
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law is a historic opportunity to repair the one-in-five miles of our roadways and more than 45,000 bridges in the United States rated as “in poor condition.” The law also contains funding to rebuild and reinvest in our railways, public transit infrastructure, and the safety of our transportation system. It further reauthorizes federal surface transportation programs for five years and invests billions in transformational projects that will create good-paying union jobs, grow the economy, and make our transportation system safer and more resilient.
Read more about funding for transportation projects : https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA_FINAL.pdf#page=10.
Roads, Bridges, and Major Projects: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=11
Passenger and Freight Rail: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=57
Public Transportation: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=65
Airports and Federal Aviation Administration Facilities: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=93
Ports and Waterways: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=99
Safety: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=117
Electric Vehicles, Buses, and Ferries: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=138

CLIMATE, ENERGY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Each year, millions of Americans feel the effects of climate change when their roads wash out, power goes down, or homes get flooded. The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law is a historic investment in the resiliency of our infrastructure to climate change, cybersecurity risks, and other hazards. This investment will help to protect communities against the impacts of climate changes such as droughts, heat, floods, wildfires, as well as cyber-attacks and other threats. It is also the largest investment in clean energy infrastructure in American history. The funding provided under the law will modernize our power grid; weatherize and upgrade homes, schools, businesses, and communities to make them cleaner and more affordable; and fund new programs to support the development, demonstration, and deployment of cutting-edge clean energy technologies. These investments help build an economy powered by clean energy and resilient to climate change, while creating good paying union jobs and rebuilding our domestic manufacturing base.
Currently up to 10 million American households lack safe drinking water and in too many communities, crumbling and inadequate wastewater infrastructure is a safety threat. The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law makes a historic investment in drinking water and wastewater infrastructure, to deliver clean drinking water to all American families and help to eliminate the nation’s lead service lines.
Read more about funding for climate, energy, and the environment: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=151.
Clean Energy and Power: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=152
Water: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=226
Resilience: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=266
Environmental Remediation: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=371

BROADBAND
Quality internet service is necessary for Americans to do their jobs, to participate equally in school learning, health care, and to stay connected. Yet, by one definition, more than 30 million Americans live in areas where there is no broadband infrastructure that provides minimally acceptable speeds – a particular problem in rural communities throughout the country. And, according to the latest OECD data, among 35 countries studied, the United States has the second highest broadband costs.
The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law will help ensure that every American has access to reliable high-speed internet through a historic investment in broadband infrastructure deployment. The legislation will also help lower prices for internet service and help close the digital divide, so that more Americans can make full use of internet access.
Read more about funding for broadband https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/BUILDING-A-BETTER-AMERICA-V2.pdf#page=385.
Program Search
Download the guidebook data : https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/20220511-build-gov-csv-v3.csv".
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

        Kalle Benallie, "Biden administration releases Native voting rights report: Updated: The report comes a year after President Biden signed an executive order to promote access to voting #NativeVote22," ICT, March 24, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/biden-administration-releases-native-voting-rights-report, reported, "The Biden administration has released an interagency steering group report on Native American voting rights. The 54-page report (https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Tribal-Voting-Report-FINAL.pdf), released Thursday, thoroughly chronicles the various issues Indigenous communities face when voting.
        The report recommends specific actions
for policy makers at federal, state, local levels and tribal government, legislature and executive bodies 'to help break these barriers down,' senior administration officials said."
        Barriers that often occurred discussed in the report include language barriers, lack of accessibility for voters with disabilities, cultural disrespect and hostility, consequences of extreme physical distance and poverty and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

         The White House Council on Native American Affairs, co-chaired by Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland and White House Domestic Affairs Advisor, Ambassador Susan Rice, held a virtual session, Monday February 1, 2022, joined by Navajo President, Jonathan Nez and other tribal leaders. The council discussed Indian policies and the issue of missing and murdered woman. This was the first of three regular meetings for the year ("White House council hosts tribal leaders," Navajo Times, February 3, 2022).

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Congressional Developments

        "VAWA reauthorization headed to president’s desk: Tribal provisions passed in appropriations bill for 2022 fiscal year," ICT, March 11, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/vawa-reauthorization-headed-to-presidents-desk?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jUoiuLDQPdUCFTlkaln4Kkw.rWcwGVcX6RE-j1TbGNJFb1w.l0G5DOugXjEyBQ-6DfUMYKQ, reported, " Tribal nations are celebrating the reauthorized Violence Against Women Act.
        Congress passed the omnibus spending
package for the 2022 fiscal year late Thursday, which included major tribal provisions. It passed in the Senate with a 68-31 vote. The bill will now head to the president’s desk to be signed. "
        " Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act of 2022
Section-by-Section Summary TITLE VIII – Safety for Indian Women
," accessed March 20, 2021, https://www.indian.senate.gov/sites/default/files/Sec-by-Sec%20Bipar%20VAWA%202022%20Reauth%20Tribal%20Title.pdf,
        Prepared by the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Offices of Chairman Brian Schatz and Vice Chairman Lisa Murkowski
         Executive Summary
        The Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act of 2022 contains provisions that reflect Tribal stakeholder and Native community input gathered over years of Committee oversight and legislative activity on public safety in Tribal, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities. More recently, the Chairman, Vice Chairman, and Committee Members’ offices jointly examined solutions to address violence against Native peoples and restore justice to Native communities.
         The bipartisan bill – which also includes important provisions that increase access to federal resources and data for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities – contains a Tribal Title based on a Committee discussion draft Schatz and Murkowski released in December 2021. The bill’s Tribal Title—
        
· Maintains special Tribal criminal jurisdiction (STCJ) over crimes of dating violence, domestic violence, and violations of Tribal civil protection orders first put in place by 2013 Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) reauthorization;
        
· Restores STCJ over crimes related to child violence, sexual violence, sex trafficking, stalking, obstruction of justice, and assault of Tribal justice personnel;
        
· Ensures Indian Tribes in Alaska and Maine are able to exercise STCJ and keep their communities safe; and
        
· Provides Indian Tribes with improved access to critical STCJ resources by—
        o Increasing the authorization level of the VAWA Special Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction
implementation grant program from $5 million per fiscal year to $25 million per fiscal
year,
        o Expanding the VAWA Special Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction implementation grant
program to cover Tribes’ reimbursements costs,
        o Reestablishing the Bureau of Prisons Tribal Prisoner Program, and
        o Codifying of the Department of Justice’s Tribal Access Program to provide Tribes with access to national criminal information databases."
        
The Omnibus Bill also included a provision that the Muscogee Nation stated gives resources to the tribe that will allow them to implement the McGirt ruling affirming the tribe's reservation continued to exist, and in effect giving the tribe criminal jurisdiction over Indians within that extensive area.
         Also in the bill is:
         $ 6.707 billion for Native health programs at the Department of Health and Human Services:
$6.63 billion for Indian Health Service programs, including $2.3 billion for IHS clinical services
$55 million for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Tribal Opioid Response grant program
$22 million for Health Resource and Services Administration grants to the Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems
$3.65 billion for the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Bureau of Indian Education at the Department of the Interior:
$7 million for DOI’s Indian Boarding School Initiative to conduct a comprehensive review of the troubled legacy of federal boarding school policies
         $1 billion for Native American housing programs at the Department of Housing and Urban Development:
$922 million for the Indian Housing Block Grant program
$72.09 million for the Indian Community Development Block Grant program
$22.3 million for the Native Hawaiian Housing Block Grant program
More than $86 million to address the missing and murdered Indigenous women crisis and public safety needs of Native communities:
$50 million for the Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs assistance to tribes
$25 million for DOI’s initiative to address MMIW cases
$5.5 million for DOJ’s Office of Violence Against Women Tribal VAWA implementation grant program
$3 million for a DOJ initiative to support cross-designation of tribal prosecutors as Tribal Special Assistant United States Attorneys
$1 million for DOJ - OVW to conduct analysis & research on violence against Indian women
$1 million to support establishment of a Native Hawaiian Resource Center on Domestic Violence
$500,000 for a national Training and Technical Assistance clearinghouse on issues relating to sexual assault of American Indian and Alaska Native women
Five percent set-aside for tribes to receive direct funding from the Crime Victims Fund
More than $47.5 million for programs to support Native American languages and cultures:
$16 million for Tribal Historic Preservation Officers
$14 million for HHS’s Administration for Native Americans Native language grant programs
$9.37 million for the Department of Education’s K-12 Native American language immersion grants
$2.3 million for Native American and Hawaiian museum services
$1.5 million for Native Hawaiian and Alaska Native culture and arts development
$1.5 million for DOI Native American language instruction and immersion programs for federally recognized tribes and tribal organizations
$1.5 million for Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act implementation and enforcement at BIA
$1 million for the National Bison Range
$600,000 for a cultural resource study to protect Chaco Canyon
$500,000+ for ED to fund establishment of a Native American Language Resource Center
         More than $65.42 million in tribal climate and environmental resiliency funding to help tribal communities address and prepare for the effects of climate change:
$5 million for DOI’s tribal climate adaptation grants
$8 million for DOI’s tribal relocation grants
$10.65 million for reclamation of abandoned mines on tribal lands
$4.8 million for clean energy development through BIA Minerals and Mining
$12 million for mitigation of environmental impacts of Department of Defense activities on Indian lands
$6 million for the tribes wildlife conservation grant program at DOI’s Fish and Wildlife Service."

         Hannah Grover, "RECA extension passes House, heads to president’s desk," New Mexico Political Report, May 12, 2022, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/05/12/reca-extension-passes-house-heads-to-presidents-desk/?mc_cid=f1bce6ee51&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported, "The U..S. House of Representatives approved an extension to the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act on Wednesday, which means the bill now heads to President Joe Biden’s desk." The act would have expired in July 2022. It was extended for two additional years.
        "RECA was first passed in 1990 and later amended in 2000. Since 1990, it has paid more than $2.5 billion to more than 39,000 claimants. The claimants must prove that they developed radiation-related health problems such as certain cancers following exposure."

        Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, "Native American Legislative Update" Friends Committee on National Legislation, May 2022, https://fcnl.actionkit.com/mailings/view/24193?t=1&akid=24193%2E30420%2E0BhNtx, reported,        "On May 12 , the House Natural Resources Subcommittee for Indigenous Peoples of the U.S. held a hearing to receive testimony from boarding school survivors, tribal leaders, and the head of the National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition.
         FY2023 Budget Hearings:
        On May 11, the Senate Interior and Environment Appropriations Subcommittee received testimony from the Indian Health Service (IHS) on its proposal to move IHS funding from discretionary to mandatory funding in fiscal year 2023. If approved, this change would stabilize the tribal healthcare system."

        "117th Congress, 1st Session, S. Res 196, Designating May 5, 2021, as the “National Day of Awareness for Missing and Murdered Native Women and Girls”.
        "IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, April 29, 2021, Mr. Daines (for himself, Mr. Tester, Mr. Cramer, Mr. Wyden, Mr. Lankford, Mr. Luján, Mr. Schatz, Ms. Murkowski, and Mr. Crapo) submitted the following resolution; which was considered and agreed to                
         RESOLUTION
        Designating May 5, 2021, as the 'National Day of Awareness for Missing and Murdered Native Women and Girls'.
        Whereas, according to a study commissioned by the Department of Justice, in some Tribal communities, American Indian women face murder rates that are more than 10 times the national average murder rate;
        Whereas, according to the most recently available data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2017, homicide was the sixth leading cause of death for American Indian and Alaska Native females between 1 and 44 years of age;
                Whereas little data exist on the number of missing American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian women in the United States;
        Whereas, on July 5, 2013, Hanna Harris, a member of the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, was reported missing by her family in Lame Deer, Montana;
        Whereas the body of Hanna Harris was found 5 days after she went missing;
                Whereas Hanna Harris was determined to have been raped and murdered, and the individuals accused of committing those crimes were convicted;
Whereas the case of Hanna Harris is an example of many similar cases; and
        Whereas Hanna Harris was born on May 5, 1992: Now, therefore, be it
        Resolved, That the Senate—
        (1) designates May 5, 2021, as the “National Day of Awareness for Missing and Murdered Native Women and Girls”; and
        (2) calls on the people of the United States and interested groups—
        (A) to commemorate the lives of missing and murdered American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian women whose cases are documented and undocumented in public records and the media; and
        (B) to demonstrate solidarity with the families of victims in light of those tragedies."

        Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL), "Native American Legislative Update," March 2022, https://fcnl.actionkit.com/mailings/view/22937?t=1&akid=22937%2E30420%2Eee4410, "Bill Tracker,"
         Senate Resolution 555:
        On March 22, the Senate passed a resolution to recognize the heritage, culture, and contributions of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian women as a part of National Women’s History Month.
         Requirements, Expectations, and Standard Procedures for Effective Consultation with Tribes (RESPECT) Act (H.R. 3587) :
         House Natural Resources Committee Chair Rep. Raúl Grijalva (AZ-3) announced that a full committee markup of the RESPECT Act will take place on April 6. This bill would codify into law that federal agencies must consult with tribal governments before taking federal actions that will impact tribal lands, rights, resources, or citizens."

        On May 18, 2022, the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs held, "Business Meeting to consider S. 3381, S. 3773 & S. 3789 and Roundtable discussion on “Public Safety in Native Communities,” https://www.indian.senate.gov/hearing/business-meeting-consider-s-3381-s-3773-s-3789-and-roundtable-discussion-public-safety. A recording of the hearing is at this web address.
        Among the testimonies received, A Navajo Nation Council Delegate Eugenia Charles-Newton told the Senate panel the tribe’s police department lacks the resources to attract and retain officers, a problem that experts say is faced by tribal police departments across the country. He said this greatly increased drug problems on the reservation as "drug traffickers 'know that Indian Country has far too few officers, especially with the size of some of our nations, our reservations.' Further testimony stated that while Urban Native communities around Phenix have a large population to draw upon to find officers, this is not the case for most rural Indian nations (Tribal police agencies struggle to attract, maintain officers: The need for officers has been one of the most talked about issues among police chiefs," ICT, May 27, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/tribal-police-agencies-struggle-to-attract-maintain-officers).
        The committee was also considering: S. 3381 – A bill to require the Bureau of Indian Affairs to process and complete all mortgage packages associated with residential and business mortgages on Indian land by certain deadlines, and for other purposes.
         S. 3773 - A bill to authorize leases of up to 99 years for land held in trust for the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation.
         S. 3789 - A bill to amend the Native American Tourism and Improving Visitor Experience Act to authorize grants to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and Native Hawaiian organizations, and for other purposes.
        
        Shondiin Silversmith, "Legislation Would Let An Arizona Tribe Lease Its Water Allocation," ICT, December 16, 2021, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/35332649-fbaa-5151-2281-2ccc23728807/12.16.21_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, "A new proposal in Congress [The Colorado River Indian Tribes Water Resiliency Act of 2021 (S. 3308) ] would let Arizona’s Colorado River Indian Tribes lease portions of their federal Colorado River allocations for the first time, a move the tribes said would benefit both the river and tribal economies.
        'This legislation protects the life of the river, protects Arizona’s fragile groundwater resources, and, for the first time in more than 156 years, allows our people to receive the full benefit from our water rights,” Colorado River Indian Tribes Chairwoman Amelia Flores said in a press release. “The time has come for (Colorado River Indian Tribes) to have authority over its resources.'”

        Rima Krisst, "Restoring federal duties: O’Halleran bill tries to fix Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act deficiencies," Navajo Times, December 16, 2021, https://navajotimes.com/reznews/restoring-federal-duties-ohalleran-bill-tries-to-fix-navajo-hopi-land-settlement-act-deficiencies/, reported, "Last Friday, Congressman Tom O’Halleran, D-Ariz., introduced a bill (H.R. 6141), which proposes technical amendments to the Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act of 1974 that address 'deficiencies' in the law."
        "In a Dec. 8 press release, O’Halleran’s office said the bill would 'restore federal obligations' in the original act, account for impacts of the relocation on Navajo relocatees while advancing tribal sovereignty, authorizing critical funding, and expanding rehabilitation in the former Bennett Freeze area."
        O’Halleran stated that the bill was needed because, “The relocation of thousands of Navajo families caused generations-long problems and has hamstrung growth and economic development of entire swaths of sovereign lands." The proposed legislation was developed in consultation with the Navajo Nation Council’s Navajo-Hopi Land Commission, president’s office, Washington office and the Department of Justice.

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Federal Agency Developments

        "U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Announces Intention to Form its First Tribal Advisory Council," Kobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-007,        April 7, 2022, https://hobbsstraus.com/general_memo/general-memorandum-22-007/, reported, "On April 7, 2022, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) posted a notice in the Federal Register indicating t he agency’s “intention to form its first to form its first standing Tribal Advisory Council (TAC).” The full notice is available here: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2022/04/07/2022-07423/gao-tribal-advisory-council.
        GAO is an independent, non-partisan agency, that is part of the legislative branch. They provide information to Congress on how taxpayer dollars are spent and provide Congress with information and recommendations for better operation of federal programs. GAO regularly studies a wide range of issues critical to Indian Country, and their reports often influence the legislative process. The Federal Register notice says that 'The TAC will advise GAO on vital and emerging issues affecting Tribes and Indigenous peoples for the purpose of informing GAO’s strategic goals and priorities with respect to the agency’s work evaluating federal programs serving Tribes and related topics'
        According to the notice, the TAC is to be composed of 15 members who are elected or appointed leaders from federally recognized Tribes; an elected or appointed leader of a state recognized Tribe and/or Native Hawaiian organization. There is also an option for 'technical advisors who may be representatives of national or regional tribal or Native-serving organizations or subject-matter experts on topics relevant to Tribes and Indigenous peoples.'
        Terms for TAC members will be two or three years, and the TAC will meet at least once a year. Nominations should be submitted to TAC@gao.gov by May 20, 2022. Additional information about specific materials that are needed for the nomination is contained in the notice."

        " Report of the Interagency Steering Group on Native American Voting Rights, March 2022, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Tribal-Voting-Report-FINAL.pdf, " Executive Summary
        In March 2021, President Biden signed Executive Order 14019, Promoting Access to Voting, directing the federal government where possible to provide nonpartisan election-related information and opportunities for engagement. The Executive Order also created an Interagency Steering Group on Native American Voting Rights, to research the barriers Native peoples face in achieving full access to participate in U.S. elections, and to recommend ways to mitigate or eliminate these barriers.
        The Steering Group held regional consultations with Tribal leaders and members, and engaged in listening sessions with Native Hawaiians, organizations advocating for improved Tribal voting rights, and state and local election officials in jurisdictions with sizable Native communities. Native voters are profoundly diverse, and their electoral experiences similarly reflect a broad range of practices and conditions. Nevertheless, the Steering Group heard several recurring themes, reflecting unnecessary and unacceptable impediments to the franchise.
         Participants in the consultations and listening sessions cited repeated manifestations of a range of problems, including language barriers, a lack of accessibility for voters with disabilities, cultural disrespect and outright hostility, the consequences of extreme physical distance and persistent poverty, and the compounding impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. While these problems are broader than the electoral sphere, they also interact with state election laws and local practices to create difficulties in exercising the franchise. In addition, participants recounted election-specific barriers that Native voters face—including barriers in receiving information about the voting process, redistricting, voter registration, voter identification, voting in person, and voting by mail. This report explores these problems in greater detail, drawing from the testimony the Steering Group received.
        As directed by the Executive Order, this report also presents best practices and recommendations to mitigate and eliminate the barriers Native voters encounter. Some of these recommendations pertain to federal legislation, some to action by federal agencies, and some to state and local government. Some are already in place in particular jurisdictions, and should be encouraged more widely. But it is clear that there is much work to be done.
        These recommendations are described more fully in the report that follows. By way of summary, the Steering Group’s recommendations for actions include:
Legislation
        
· Congress should pass the John Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act—restoring the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to again ensure, among other safeguards, that certain voting rules must be precleared before they go into effect so they do not discriminate.
        
· Congress should pass the Native American Voting Rights Act, to ensure that Native voters have equitable and meaningful opportunities to vote where they live, in person and by mail.
        
· Congress should pass the Freedom to Vote Act, including national baselines for the effective exercise of the franchise that benefit all Americans, including Native voters.
        
· States should pass legislation incorporating and building upon the sensible protections in the Native American Voting Rights Act, as several states have already done since 2017.
        ««««««
         Execution and Enforcement of Current Law
        · States should ensure that existing laws are equitably implemented. For example, state laws requiring voter identification should permit the use of Tribal identification cards for that purpose—and where existing laws allow government documents to be used as voter ID, officials should ensure that Tribal identification cards are clearly and explicitly recognized as such.
        · Local officials should also ensure that existing laws are equitably implemented, providing registration sites, polling places, and mail ballot collection stations or drop boxes in locations convenient to Native voters.
        · Tribal governments should request local polling sites when state law or local practice allows such opportunities.
        · The Department of Justice should continue to vigorously enforce the protections of federal law, including laws preventing discrimination on the basis of race and protections for language minority voters and voters with disabilities.
        · The Department of Justice should continue to ensure adequate communications channels with Tribal governments, so that Tribal leaders can ensure appropriate attention to incidents and practices in need of enforcement action.
        · State and local officials should foster compliance with legal requirements, and convey the importance of trust and respect, through robust training programs for permanent staff and temporary pollworkers working on Tribal lands and serving Native communities elsewhere.
Inclusion and Communication
        · Federal, state, and local policymakers should institutionalize engagement of Tribal leaders and Tribal communities through representation on task forces and similar bodies, to ensure that Native American voices are at the table when decisions affecting Native voters are made.
        · Local election officials should commit to a long-term presence—when invited by Tribal government—in Tribal communities on Tribal lands, to foster trust and improve service delivery.
        · Government at every level should engage Native advocates and recruit and hire qualified members of Native communities to ensure connection to and communication with voters.
        · Local officials should ensure that elections offices and polling places serving Native communities are sited for convenience to Native voters, and staffed by bilingual members of those communities whenever possible.
        · Local officials should ensure that poll workers are trained on working with Native voters, including how to proactively offer language assistance where it is needed and how to recognize valid Tribal identification cards.
        · State and local redistricting entities should recognize and preserve Native areas as communities of interest when residents there form cohesive constituencies for representation.
        ««««««
         Access to Information
        · Federal, state, and local governments, and private providers, should ensure reliable, affordable, and high-speed broadband access to the Internet in every Tribal community— including incorporating Tribal governments into the procurement process.
        · State and local officials should ensure that their election-related applications and information are optimized (and translated) for mobile devices.
        · State and local officials should distribute essential information in media most appropriate for the audience—including flyers, posters, and other offline media.
Voting by Mail
        · The U.S. Postal Service should evaluate whether it can add routes, offices, and staff hours or personnel in Tribal areas, and should consider whether fleet upgrades would better serve voters on more rugged rural routes. And in consultation with Tribal governments, local governments should evaluate the extent to which road access in Native American communities can and should be improved.
        · The U.S. Postal Service should prioritize assigning postal addresses to homes on Tribal lands, and designate specific employees with the formal responsibility to liaise with Tribal governments on issues of addressing and delivery.
        · The U.S. Postal Service should explore increased support (including potential subsidies) for cluster mailboxes on Tribal lands, and should evaluate how its procedures concerning P.O. boxes in low-income rural areas might be modified to better serve low-income rural customers.
        · U.S. Postal Service offices in Tribal areas should offer federal voter registration forms in retail offices, and should consider whether the retail postal space on or near Tribal lands could be used as satellite polling places without compromising postal operations.
Voter Registration
        · Federal agencies with significant presence serving Native communities should expeditiously offer their programs for state designation under the National Voter Registration Act—and state officials should accept those requests for designation.
        · State offices required to provide voter registration services under the NVRA—and federal agencies supporting those state offices—should confirm that the state offices are living up to their statutory responsibilities. And states should consider whether other state agencies and nongovernmental offices serving Native voters would be suitable for designation.
        · Where formal designation as an NVRA agency is inappropriate or unavailable, offices and entities serving Native communities should still offer constituents voter registration forms and nonpartisan election-related information where possible.
        ««««««
         Language Access
        · Jurisdictions serving Native voters should ensure that they offer effective language assistance through adequate translation of materials in appropriate media, even when no statutory mandate compels them to do so. The best process will involve consultation with Native communities themselves on what the most effective assistance entails.
        · Local elections offices should train poll workers to recognize when someone may welcome language assistance, and to allow assistors of the voter’s choice to provide language assistance if the voter wishes.
        · Local elections offices should also consider means by which language access can foster inclusion beyond assistance essential to the voting process—including, for example, the communicative impact of materials like “I voted” stickers in Native languages.
        · The federal government should institutionalize a resource center to sustainably provide capacity to translate federal information into Native languages.
Additional Resources
        · The Census Bureau should continue to improve its Native community outreach programs, survey sampling in Native areas, and the analysis and dissemination of Census data for Native communities.
        · Federal and state policymakers should ensure that election officials in Native communities have the funding they need to ensure appropriate and equitable service—and to this end, the federal government should consider a sizable and sustained commitment of resources.
        · Federal policymakers should consider revisiting the exclusion of two Protection & Advocacy disability rights agencies—including the American Indian Consortium—from access to funds under the Help America Vote Act, to ensure that those entities are also able to equitably serve voters with disabilities in their areas.
        · The private sector should consider the ways in which they can offer reliable information and support voter engagement, including for Native communities, and private entities that already offer voter-facing tools or services should consider whether they are optimally designed for Native voters’ needs.
         Table of Contents
Report of the Interagency Steering Group on Native American Voting Rights ............................ 7 Background..................................................................................................................................... 8
Executive Order 14019: Promoting Access to Voting.................................................................. 13 Barriers to Voting: Broad Themes................................................................................................ 14 Barriers to Voting: Specific Electoral Practices........................................................................... 20 Recommendations......................................................................................................................... 26 Conclusion.................................................................................................................................... 38 Appendix I Executive Order 14019.............................................................................................. 39 Appendix II Schedule of Consultations and Listening Sessions.................................................. 44 Appendix III 2021 Determinations: Section 203 of the Voting Rights Act................................. 46 Appendix IV Endnotes............................................................................................................... 49."
         The full report is at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Tribal-Voting-Report-FINAL.pdf.

         Kalle Benallie, " US boarding school investigative report released: The findings show the federal Indian boarding school system consisted of at least 408 federal schools across 37 states and roughly 53 different schools had been identified with marked or unmarked burial sites," ICT, May 11, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/us-boarding-school-investigative-report-released, reported, "The U.S. Department of Interior released its investigative report Wednesday on the Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative. It’s being called the first volume of the report and comes nearly a year after the department announced a 'comprehensive' review."
         The 100 plus page report , which includes historical records of boarding school locations and their names, and the first official list of burial sites is available at: https://www.bia.gov/sites/default/files/dup/inline-files/bsi_investigative_report_may_2022_508.pdf. The investigation of the boarding schools is ongoing."

        The Interior Department... held an event on May 5 to share updates on their Missing and Murdered Indigenous People (MMIP) initiatives. The new Missing and Murdered Unit (https://www.bia.gov/service/mmu), operating out of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, has built up its personnel and infrastructure capacity.
        Seventeen offices now have at least one agent dedicated to solving MMIP cases.
Secretary Deb Haaland and U.S. Deputy Attorney General Lisa Monaco also announced the members of the Not Invisible Act Commission, a new advisory committee to address public safety and MMIP cases (https://www.doi.gov/pressreleases/departments-interior-and-justice-take-important-step-addressing-missing-and-murdered).
        “The MMIW crisis is not new,” said Lucy Simpson, executive director for the National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center, at the May 5 event. “It was born in colonization and is a continuation of past federal laws and policies that were intended to terminate Indian nations.” She emphasized the need to move toward prevention with a holistic approach to safety, including safe housing."

        " Not Invisible Act Commission," U.S. Department of the Interior, May 5, 2022, https://www.doi.gov/priorities/strengthening-indian-country/not-invisible-act-commission, stated, “'A lack of urgency, transparency, and coordination has hampered our country’s efforts to combat violence against American Indian and Alaska Native people. In partnership with the Justice Department and with extensive engagement with Tribes and other stakeholders, the Interior Department is marshalling our resources to finally address the crisis of violence against Indigenous peoples.'
        —Secretary Deb Haaland
        At the Department of the Interior, we believe that everyone deserves to feel safe in their communities, but American Indian and Alaska Native people are at a disproportionate risk of experiencing violence, murder, or going missing. For too long, the national crisis of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Peoples has been overlooked and underfunded.
        On Oct. 10, 2020, the Not Invisible Act of 2019 was signed into law as the first bill in history to be introduced and passed by four U.S. congressional members enrolled in their respective federally recognized Tribes, led by Secretary Deb Haaland during her time in Congress.
         Secretary Haaland, in coordination with Attorney General Merrick Garland, is now working to implement the Not Invisible Act. They established the Not Invisible Act Commission, a cross jurisdictional advisory committee composed of law enforcement, Tribal leaders, federal partners, service providers, family members of missing and murdered individuals, and most importantly — survivors.
        The Commission’s purpose is to make recommendations to the Departments of the Interior and Justice to improve intergovernmental coordination and establish best practices for state, Tribal, and federal law enforcement, to bolster resources for survivors and victim’s families, and to combat the epidemic of missing persons, murder, and trafficking of Native Americans and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs).
         Among its mission, the Commission will:
        Identify, report and respond to instances of missing and murdered Indigenous peoples (MMIP) cases and human trafficking,
        Develop legislative and administrative changes necessary to use federal programs, properties, and resources to combat the crisis,
        Track and report data on MMIP and human trafficking cases,
        Consider issues related to the hiring and retention of law enforcement offices,
        Coordinate Tribal-state-federal resources to combat MMIP and human trafficking offices on Indian lands, and
        Increase information sharing with Tribal governments on violent crimes investigations and other prosecutions on Indian lands.
        The Commission has the authority to hold hearings, gather testimony, and receive additional evidence and feedback from its members to develop recommendations to the Secretary and Attorney General.
         Members of the Commission:
        Bazil-Lu Adams, Officer, Yakama Nation Police Department
        Natasha Anderson, Staff Attorney, Nez Perce Tribe Office of Legal Counsel
        Deidra Williams Angulo, Sonder Mind Mental Health Services
        Eric Broderick, retired mental health professional
        Ruth Buffalo, Legislator, 27th House District of North Dakota
        Grace Bulltail, survivor or family member of missing or murdered person
        Francisco Burrola, Special Agent in Charge for Immigration and Customs Enforcement at Homeland Security Investigations, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
        Elizabeth Carr, Senior Advisor to the Director, Indian Health Services – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
        Kerri Colfer, National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center
        Christine Crossland, Senior Social Science Analyst, National Institute of Justice – U.S. Department of Justice
        Amber Kanazbah Crotty, Council Delegate, The Navajo Nation Council
        Jordan Dresser, Chairman, Northern Arapaho Tribal Business Council
        Michelle Demmert, Tribal Judge, Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska
        Dale Fine, Jr. Special Agent, Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation
        Leanne Guy, survivor or family member of missing or murdered person
        Jolene Hardesty, Michigan State Police, Missing Children’s Clearing House Analyst
        Carmen Harvie, survivor or family member of missing or murdered person
        Karen 'Kari' Hearod, Director, Office of Tribal Affairs and Policy; Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Admin – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
        Don Hedrick, Chief of Police, Rapid City Police Department
        Tamra Truett Jerue, Alaska Native Women’s Resource Center
        Vivian Korthuis, CEO of the Association of Village Council Presidents, Native Village of Emmonak
        Hope MacDonald LoneTree, Deputy Commissioner, Administration for Native Americans – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
        Annita Lucchesi, survivor or family member of missing or murdered person
        Jason O’Neal, Director, Office of Justice Services, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior
        Gregg Peterman, Supervisory Assistant U.S. Attorney for District of South Dakota; US Attorney's Office—U.S. Department of Justice
        Kimberly Poyer, Section Chief, Victim Services Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation – U.S. Department of Justice
        Allison Randall, Acting Director, Office of Violence Against Women— U.S. Department of Justice
        Shawnna Roach, Investigator, Cherokee Nation Marshal Service
        Delight Satter, Senior Health Scientist/Advisor to the Director for Center for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Katherine Darke Schmitt, Deputy Director, Office of Victims of Crime – U.S. Department of Justice
        Heston Silbert, Colonel, Arizona Department of Public Safety
        Sonya Tetnowski, National Council of Urban Indian Health
        Karonienhawi Thomas, Detective Sergeant, Saint Regis Mohawk Tribal Police Department
        Kristin Welch, Waking Women Healing Institute
        Patricia Whitefoot, survivor or family member of missing or murdered person
        Cord Wood, Captain, Oregon State Police
        Daniel Yonkin, Detective, Lake County Montana Sheriff’s Office
Resources:
         RELEASE: Secretary Haaland Continues Pursuit of Justice in Indian Country, Begins Implementation of ‘Not Invisible Act’: https://www.doi.gov/pressreleases/secretary-haaland-continues-pursuit-justice-indian-country-begins-implementation-not
         Department of Justice Murdered or Missing Indigenous Persons Webpage: https://www.justice.gov/tribal/mmip/about
         Missing and Murdered Indigenous People Priority Page: https://www.doi.gov/priorities/missing-and-murdered-indigenous-peoples#main-content
         BIA OJS Missing & Murdered Unit website: https://www.bia.gov/service/mmu
BIA OJS Victim Assistance Program website: https://www.bia.gov/bia/ojs/victim-assistance."

        Stewart Huntington, "'Historic' meeting renews push for Black Hills: Great Plains leaders voice concerns in meeting with Interior Secretary Deb Haaland." ICT, December 17, 2021, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/historic-meeting-renews-push-for-black-hills, reported on a Department of the Interior listening session, " Tribal leaders from 12 Great Plains Native Nations conferred Friday in the Black Hills with Interior Secretary Deb Haaland in a meeting tribal leaders called 'historic.'
         Several leaders brought up the long-standing issue over control of the Black Hills, the sacred Paha Sapa of the Oceti Sakowin tribes, which the tribes continue to want to have retuned to them. Tribal leaders said they were pleased with the meeting."

        "Indian Youth Service Corps aims to combat climate change, empower Native youth," New Mexico Political Report, June 13, 2022, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/06/13/indian-youth-service-corps-aims-to-combat-climate-change-empower-native-youth/?mc_cid=49c3aaa949&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported, " The U.S. Department of the Interior launched the new Indian Youth Service Corps and announced the program guidelines on Friday."
        " Its goal is to provide opportunities for Native Americans ages 16 to 30 to gain work experience in the natural resources field while also preserving traditional practices of land stewardship and creating awareness of Indigenous culture and history."

        Joaqlin Estus, "Interior Opens Allotments For Alaska Native Vietnam Vets," ICT, April 28, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/12f54d01-0ecf-67a4-1aac-788aa89af5ee/4.28.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, "Interior Secretary Deb Haaland, Laguna Pueblo, whose father served during the Vietnam War, met with Alaska veterans Thursday, April 21, in Anchorage. She thanked them for their service and their patriotism.
        Then she made the announcement at a press conference that the Bureau of Land Management was opening 27 million acres of land for eligible Alaska Native Vietnam-era veterans through the Veterans Land Allotment Program."

        "DOI Publishes List of Non-BIA Programs Eligible for Inclusion in Self-Governance Funding Agreements," Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-001, February 10, 2022, https://hobbsstraus.com/general_memo/general-memorandum-22-001/, reported, On February 8, 2022, in the Federal Register, the Department of the Interior (DOI) published a notice which lists non-Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) programs, services, functions, and activities (or portions thereof) eligible to be included in self-governance funding agreements and lists the FY 2022 programmatic targets for these non-BIA bureaus. DOI annually publishes this notice in the Federal Register. These programs are eligible for inclusion in Funding Agreements until September 30, 2022.
        Determining Eligible Programs, Services, Functions, and Activities (PSFAs). There are two categories of PSFAs (or portions thereof) eligible to be included in self-governance funding agreements:
        Any non-BIA PSFA administered by DOI that is 'otherwise available to Indian tribes or Indians;' and
        Any non-BIA PSFA that is of “special geographic, historical, or cultural significance” to a tribe.
        Funding agreements cannot include PSFAs that are 'inherently Federal' or where the statute establishing the existing program does not authorize the types of participation sought by the tribe. However, a Tribe need not be identified in the authorizing statutes in order for a PSFA or element of such PSFA to be included in a self-governance funding agreement. While general legal and policy guidance regarding what constitutes an inherently federal function exists, the non-BIA bureaus will determine whether a specific function is “inherently Federal” on a case-by-case basis considering the totality of circumstances.
         Non-BIA Bureaus. Tribes may include PSFAs from the following non-BIA bureaus in self-governance funding agreements: Bureau of Land Management; Bureau of Reclamation; Office of Natural Resources Revenue; National Park Service; Fish and Wildlife Service; U.S. Geological Survey; Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians; and the Appraisal and Valuation Services Office. The notice lists the FY 2022 tribal self-governance agreements with non-BIA agencies at the Department of the Interior."
        "Available Documents for Download (any referenced attachments are included in download ):
  GM_22-001_DOI_NON-BIA_Programs_Eligible_for_Self-Governance.pdf."

        "Yellowstone Mountain Renamed To 'Honor Victims' Of 1870 Montana Massacre: 'The name change is long overdue,' said Piikani Nation Chief Stan Grier in a statement," Huffington Post, June 13, 2022, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/yellowstone-mountain-renamed_n_62a6f30ee4b04a6173514ac0?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.j8eFG3rR4x0iRP30F8VhQkw.rejvWFWhjPkqoEeUvD21NOw.ljPNRG2H0WkiIRbDRbd-Rww, reported, "A government panel has renamed a Yellowstone National Park mountain that had been named for a U.S. Army officer who helped lead a massacre of Native Americans.
        Mount Doane will now be called First Peoples Mountain after the unanimous vote by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, the National Park Service announced Thursday."

        "Biden Administration Announces Nomination for Indian Health Service Director," The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), March 9, 2022, https://www.ncai.org/news/articles/2022/03/09/biden-administration-announces-nomination-for-indian-health-service-director, "Today, the Biden Administration announced the nomination of Roselyn Tso (Navajo Nation) to serve as Director of the Indian Health Service (IHS). The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is pleased that the Biden-Harris Administration is taking steps to fill the IHS Director position, which is essential to fulfilling the federal government’s trust responsibility to Tribal Nations. We look forward to engaging with the candidate during the process and working with the Administration to ensure IHS is fully prepared to meet the needs of Indian Country.
        A citizen of the Navajo Nation, Roselyn Tso is currently the Director of the Navajo Area of IHS, and previously held the position of Director of the Office of Direct Services and Contracting Tribes at IHS. Tso began working for IHS in 1984, and prior to working with the Navajo Area, she spent years working in the Portland Area, which included roles such as the Portland Area Planning and Statistical Officer, Equal Employment Officer, Special Assistant to the Area Director, and as Director of the Office of Tribal and Service Unit Operations. As Director for Tribal and Service Unit Operations, she was responsible for implementing the Indian Self-Determination and Education Act, working directly with tribes and direct service tribes."
         The Senate approved Tso's nomination.

         Michael Wines and Maria Cramer, "2020 Census Undercounted Hispanic, Black and Native American Residents: The Census Bureau said that the overall population total was accurate but that counts of minorities were skewed. Advocacy groups threatened to go to court, The New York Times, March 10, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/10/us/census-undercounted-population.html, reported, " Saddled with daunting logistical and political obstacles, the 2020 census seriously undercounted the number of Hispanic, Black and Native American residents even though its overall population count was largely accurate, the Census Bureau said on Thursday.
        At the same time, the census overcounted white and Asian American residents, the bureau said.
        ' The census missed counting 4.99 of every 100 Hispanics, 5.64 of every 100 Native Americans and 3.3 of every 100 African Americans.'"
        the U.S. Census Bureau released part two of its 2020 Post Enumeration Survey (https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/05/2020-census-undercount-overcount-rates-by-state.html), its quality check on the 2020 census figures, on April 19, The full report is at: https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial/coverage-measurement/pes/census-coverage-estimates-for-people-in-the-united-states-by-state-and-census-operations.pdf.

        "HUD Announces $147 Million to Tribal Communities for Affordable Housing and Community Development," Department of Housing and Urban Development, HUD No. 22-102, May 26, 2022, https://www.hud.gov/press/press_releases_media_advisories/hud_no_22_102, announced, " The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) on Thursday announced 83 awards totaling $147 million for affordable housing and community development projects that primarily benefit people with low and moderate incomes in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.
        'Every person deserves a fair shot to get ahead-one that includes access to safe, affordable housing and a vibrant community,' said Secretary Marcia L. Fudge. “That is why we are pleased to make over 80 awards to American Indian and Alaska Native communities across the country so that they can build new housing and solve their most pressing housing and economic challenges. These funds are an important investment in Tribal communities that need it most.”
         HUD awarded $95 million to 24 communities through the Indian Housing Block Grant (IHBG) Competitive Program to help Tribes develop affordable housing. Grant funds may be used for new construction, rehabilitation, and infrastructure to support affordable housing on Indian reservations and in other Indian areas. View the list of awardees here: https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/PA/documents/IHBG-Competitive-Grants-2022.pdf.
         HUD also awarded almost $52 million to 59 communities through the Indian Community Development Block Grant (ICDBG) Program to develop community facilities, carry out public works projects, and provide economic development assistance. View the list of awardees here: https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/PA/documents/ICDBG-Competitive-Awards-2022.pdf.
        The IHBG and ICDBG funds will be used to support projects on Tribal lands across the country, such as:
        New affordable housing and rehabilitation of existing housing units
        A community center that will provide services to homeless Tribal members
        A new building for a local Boys & Girls Club
        Rehabilitation of apartment buildings for elders
        Background:
        In January 2017, HUD released a study entitled, “Housing Needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives in Tribal Areas: A Report from the Assessment of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs.” Among the findings, the study found that housing conditions for Tribal households are substantially worse than other U.S. households, with overcrowding in Tribal areas being especially severe. The study noted that in the 2013-2015 period alone, 68,000 new units would have been necessary to help eliminate overcrowding and replace physically deteriorating units. View the report here: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pdredge/pdr-edge-research-022117.html."

        " Native American Veterans: Improvements to VA Management Could Help Increase Mortgage Loan Program Participation," Government Accounting Office, GAO-22-104627, Published: April 19, 2022, Publicly Released: Apr 19, 2022, https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-104627, reported,
        " Fast Facts
         The Department of Veterans Affairs has made few loans under the Native American Direct Loan program, which provides loans to eligible Native American veterans for buying, building, or fixing up homes on certain types of land.
VA is working to improve the program, such as by dedicating staff to work full-time on it. But VA hasn't collected certain useful information related to program outreach or loan processing. For example, VA doesn't collect data on whether outreach efforts or materials reached eligible veterans or led them to apply for loans
.
         We recommended that VA address this and other issues.
         Highlights
        What GAO Found

        The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has made relatively few loans under its Native American Direct Loan (NADL) program. This program provides loans to eligible Native American veterans to purchase, construct, or improve homes on certain types of land. Specifically:
         In fiscal years 2012–2021, NADL originated 89 loans to veterans in the contiguous United States, 91 loans in Hawaii, and none in Alaska. This represents loans to less than 1 percent of the estimated potentially eligible population of 64,000–70,000 veterans in these areas.
        During this period, VA also originated 76 loans in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam—serving approximately 1.5 percent of the potentially eligible population of 5,200 veterans in these U.S. Pacific territories
.
        Veterans living in the contiguous United States make up the majority of the potentially eligible population. However, less than one-third of federally recognized Indian tribes there have agreements with VA to allow their members to apply for NADL loans.
        In October 2021, VA reorganized NADL operations and formed a NADL-dedicated team to strengthen the program. However, GAO identified weaknesses with the NADL program and opportunities for VA to improve management and operations, including in the following areas:
        Data collection and performance measurement.
VA does not collect certain useful data related to NADL outreach, loan processing, and negotiation of program participation agreements with federally recognized Indian tribes. It also does not have performance measures for all of its key activities, including loan processing, or for their outcomes. More comprehensive data collection and performance measurement would provide management information for more informed decision-making.
         Planning. VA does not have an overall outreach plan for NADL and has not integrated leading outreach practices, such as tailoring activities to populations, to inform its approach. VA also has not developed an operating plan for making NADL loans on the vast majority of NADL-eligible land in Alaska. Such plans would help ensure VA's activities are informed by best practices and appropriate to the local environment.
         Leveraging expertise. VA faces barriers to NADL implementation, such as lack of borrower readiness for loans and title issues related to mortgage lending on NADL-eligible lands. NADL has addressed these barriers to a limited degree. However, it has not leveraged the knowledge of or routinely collaborated with other VA offices, federal agencies, or local organizations with applicable experience. Collaborating with these entities would increase the program's ability to serve veterans.
         Why GAO Did This Study
        In 1992, Congress required VA to establish a direct loan program to help Native American veterans finance homes on certain types of land that can be difficult to use as collateral for conventional mortgage loans. This could include, for example, land held in trust for Native Americans by the federal government. Members of Congress, advocacy organizations, and other stakeholders have raised questions about the effectiveness of VA's administration of NADL and outreach efforts.
        GAO was asked to review the NADL program. This report examines the extent of lending to eligible veterans and program management and operations. GAO reviewed relevant laws and regulations; VA documents and data on NADL organization and activities; and estimates of potentially eligible veterans. GAO also interviewed VA officials and representatives of seven associations and 28 local organizations. GAO selected them for geographic diversity and applicable mortgage lending experience. They include tribal housing authorities, financial institutions, and tribal veterans service organizations.
         Recommendations
        GAO is making 10 recommendations to VA, including on data collection, performance measurement, planning, and leveraging expertise to mitigate barriers to NADL use. VA concurred with all of GAO's recommendations. For four, VA described actions it considered fully implemented them. GAO maintains that VA needs to take additional actions to fully implement those recommendations
, as discussed in the report.
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop a plan for implementation of NADL activities under the new staffing structure, to include staff priorities, resource needs, time frames, and assessment of the changes made. (Recommendation 1)
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should comprehensively assess its needs for collecting and using data to monitor and oversee NADL outreach and MOU negotiation. (Recommendation 2)
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop and implement mechanisms, such as surveys or focus groups, to collect feedback from Native American veterans, NADL-eligible entities, and other knowledgeable groups on NADL activities and identify any opportunities for improvement. (Recommendation 3)
        he Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop and implement program performance goals and measures for NADL outreach, MOU negotiation, and lending activities. (Recommendation 4)
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop and implement processes to routinely and consistently review NADL program documents (including MOUs and policies and procedures) to help ensure they are current, complete, and accurate, and also identify parties to help conduct the reviews, such as VA's Office of General Counsel. (Recommendation 5)
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop a NADL outreach plan based on sound planning practices. (Recommendation 6)
        he Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop a plan for conducting NADL outreach, MOU negotiation, and lending activities in Alaska, including how to assist eligible veterans with interests in land owned by Alaska Native regional and village corporations or, if eligible, Alaska Native allotments and townsites. (Recommendation 7)
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop and implement a mechanism for NADL staff to routinely consult on outreach, MOU negotiation, and lending activities with staff from other VA offices serving Native American veterans. (Recommendation 8)
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should develop policies and procedures for staff to determine whether eligible entities without a NADL MOU previously received approvals from other federal agencies to participate in their mortgage programs and use such information to inform its approach to outreach. (Recommendation 9
        The Director of the Loan Guaranty Service should partner with organizations in Alaska and the contiguous United States to conduct NADL outreach or assist with program activities and assess which partnership models are most effective. (Recommendation 10)"
        The full report is available at: https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-22-104627.pdf, and as an accessible pdf at: https://www.gao.gov/assets/730/720116.pdf.

        "FCC Requests Comments on Proposed Rule to Revise Rural Health Care Telecommunications Program," Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-003, March 21, 2022, https://hobbsstraus.com/general_memo/general-memorandum-22-003/, reported, "On March 15, 2022, in the Federal Register , the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) published a Proposed Rule that would revise the Rural Health Care Telecommunications (Telecom) Program. The Telecom Program subsidizes the rates on telecommunications services charged to eligible rural health care providers to be reasonably comparable to rates charged in urban areas for similar services.
        The FCC’s proposed changes are intended to streamline the invoice process and 'modify the applicability of the internal funding cap on upfront costs and multi-year commitments in the Rural Health Care Healthcare Connect Fund Program.' In addition, the FCC seeks comments on how to increase the speed of funding commitments
. Written comments are due April 14, 2022 and reply comments are due May 16, 2022.
        The FCC seeks comments on various questions provided in the Proposed Rule. Within these questions, the FCC seeks input on tribal-specific issues. The Proposed Rule asks the following:
         Due to the unique challenges that Tribal health care providers face, should Tribal health care providers receive a higher discount rate than non-Tribal providers in comparable rural areas? Would providing a higher discount rate for Tribal health care providers or considering factors other than rurality in determining discount rates comply with section 254(h)(1)(A) of the [Telecommunications Act of 1996]?
        In addition, the Proposed Rule provides:
        The [FCC], as part of its continuing effort to advance digital equity for all, including people of color, persons with disabilities, persons who live in rural or Tribal areas, and others who are or have been historically underserved, marginalized, or adversely affected by persistent poverty or inequality, invites comment on any equity-related considerations and benefits (if any) that may be associated with the proposals and issues discussed herein. Specifically, the [FCC] seek comment on how the proposals may promote or inhibit advances in diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility, as well the scope of the [FCC’s] relevant legal authority."

        "The FCC appointed eight tribal members to its Native Nations Communications Task Force, in early February 2022, filling vacancies and raising the Native membership to 26.
        Native task force members are:
Danae Wilson, Nez Perce Tribe, Tribal Co-Chair
Honorable Cheryl Andrews-Maltais, Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah)
Honorable Joe Garcia, Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo
Honorable Joey Whitman, Gila River Indian Community
Cliff Agee, Chickasaw Nation
Bill Bryant, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Sam Cohen, Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians
Damon Day, Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservations
Daniel Gargan, Rosebud Sioux Tribe
Kristan Johnson, Tohono O’odham Nation
James Kinter, Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation
Donald Long Knife, Fort Belknap Indian Community
Marissa Merculieff, Aleut Community of St. Paul (ASCPI), AK
Will Micklin, Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians
Allyson Mitchell, St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
Travis Noland, Cherokee Nation
Dr. Stacey Oberly, Southern Ute Indian Tribe
Robert Pollard, Blue Lake Rancheria
Theron Rutyna, Ponca Indian Tribe of Nebraska
Kevin Shendo, Pueblo of Jemez
Teresa Taylor, Lummi Nation
Jimmy Williams, Choctaw Nation
Jon Walton, Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska
Karen Woodard, Morongo Band of Mission Indians
("Rosenworcel announces new appointments to the Native Nations Communications Task Force," Southern Ute Drum, February 11, 2022).
        For information on the task force, including news and public notices, go to: https://www.fcc.gov/native-nations-communications-task-force.

        Carina Dominguez, "Agriculture Department Announces New Equity Commission," ICT,
February 17, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/b86ccf4a-078f-d39d-29d8-eac1949e5e85/02.17.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported that the U.S. Department of Agriculture is establishing a "15-member external commission, and 15-member subcommittee on agriculture, will include racial and gender diversity and will investigate barriers to access and inclusion at the department.
        The commission includes at least one Native member and will analyze how the department systematically discriminates against Indigenous, and other historically marginalized, farmers
."
        The Secretary of Agriculture indicated that one member the commission would be a citizen of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. "The commission is tasked with analyzing how the department's programs, policies and practices have impacted marginalized farmers," and will make recommendations to the Secretary of Agriculture.

        "SEC Proposes Rules to Enhance and Standardize Climate-Related Disclosures for Investors, Securities and Exchange Commission,
2022-46, March 21, 2022, https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2022-46, announced, " The Securities and Exchange Commission today proposed rule changes that would require registrants to include certain climate-related disclosures in their registration statements and periodic reports, including information about climate-related risks that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on their business, results of operations, or financial condition, and certain climate-related financial statement metrics in a note to their audited financial statements. The required information about climate-related risks also would include disclosure of a registrant’s greenhouse gas emissions, which have become a commonly used metric to assess a registrant’s exposure to such risks.
        'I am pleased to support today’s proposal because, if adopted, it would provide investors with consistent, comparable, and decision-useful information for making their investment decisions, and it would provide consistent and clear reporting obligations for issuers' said SEC Chair Gary Gensler. 'Our core bargain from the 1930s is that investors get to decide which risks to take, as long as public companies provide full and fair disclosure and are truthful in those disclosures. Today, investors representing literally tens of trillions of dollars support climate-related disclosures because they recognize that climate risks can pose significant financial risks to companies, and investors need reliable information about climate risks to make informed investment decisions. Today’s proposal would help issuers more efficiently and effectively disclose these risks and meet investor demand, as many issuers already seek to do. Companies and investors alike would benefit from the clear rules of the road proposed in this release. I believe the SEC has a role to play when there’s this level of demand for consistent and comparable information that may affect financial performance. Today’s proposal thus is driven by the needs of investors and issuers.'
        The proposed rule changes would require a registrant to disclose information about (1) the registrant’s governance of climate-related risks and relevant risk management processes; (2) how any climate-related risks identified by the registrant have had or are likely to have a material impact on its business and consolidated financial statements, which may manifest over the short-, medium-, or long-term; (3) how any identified climate-related risks have affected or are likely to affect the registrant’s strategy, business model, and outlook; and (4) the impact of climate-related events (severe weather events and other natural conditions) and transition activities on the line items of a registrant’s consolidated financial statements, as well as on the financial estimates and assumptions used in the financial statements.
        For registrants that already conduct scenario analysis, have developed transition plans, or publicly set climate-related targets or goals, the proposed amendments would require certain disclosures to enable investors to understand those aspects of the registrants’ climate risk management.
        The proposed rules also would require a registrant to disclose information about its direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Scope 1) and indirect emissions from purchased electricity or other forms of energy (Scope 2). In addition, a registrant would be required to disclose GHG emissions from upstream and downstream activities in its value chain (Scope 3), if material or if the registrant has set a GHG emissions target or goal that includes Scope 3 emissions. These proposals for GHG emissions disclosures would provide investors with decision-useful information to assess a registrant’s exposure to, and management of, climate-related risks, and in particular transition risks. The proposed rules would provide a safe harbor for liability from Scope 3 emissions disclosure and an exemption from the Scope 3 emissions disclosure requirement for smaller reporting companies. The proposed disclosures are similar to those that many companies already provide based on broadly accepted disclosure frameworks, such as the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol.
        Under the proposed rule changes, accelerated filers and large accelerated filers would be required to include an attestation report from an independent attestation service provider covering Scopes 1 and 2 emissions disclosures, with a phase-in over time, to promote the reliability of GHG emissions disclosures for investors.
        The proposed rules would include a phase-in period for all registrants, with the compliance date dependent on the registrant’s filer status, and an additional phase-in period for Scope 3 emissions disclosure.
        The proposing release will be published on SEC.gov and in the Federal Register. The comment period will remain open for 30 days after publication in the Federal Register, or 60 days after the date of issuance and publication on sec.gov, whichever period is longer."

        Eve Chen, "America's first national park turns 150, but Native Americans cared for Yellowstone long before," USA Today, March 1, 2022, https://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/experience/america/national-parks/2022/03/01/yellowstone-national-park-turns-150/9332891002/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jJQBQ8jOfRE27JCTp2NTPHQ.r2YnriT7cW0qm7VJaX6Qr6A.lTALKLg-cvkWXQKJJ62oJtg, reported, " America's first national park celebrated its 150th birthday Tuesday, and Park Service leaders took the opportunity to honor Yellowstone's first stewards.
        While it has been 150 years since President Ulysses S. Grant signed the Yellowstone National Park Protection Act, Native Americans have been caring for the land long before the U.S. government got involved."

        The National Indian Gaming Commission's rulings, upcoming trainings and events, public reports and statements are at: https://www.nigc.gov, including: " NIGC Chairman Simermeyer announces 3 for 35 Project: Regulating for the future," " Notice of Violation Issued Against the Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota," " Dear Tribal Leader Letter: Consultation Series C Update," and " Dear Tribal Leader Letter Regarding FY 22 Annual Fee Rate and Annual Fingerprint Processing Fee Rate."

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Federal Indian Budgets

"FACT SHEET: President Biden’s FY 2023 Budget Honors Commitments to Tribal Nations and Tribal Communities
The White House, March 28, 2022, https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/briefing-room/2022/03/28/fact-sheet-president-bidens-fy-2023-budget-honors-commitments-to-tribal-nations-antd-tribal-communities/

        President Biden knows a strong middle-class is the backbone of America and that Tribal Nations and Tribal communities are essential to the success and economic growth of our country. The President’s Budget for fiscal year 2023 makes historic investments in Tribal communities and lays the foundation for shared growth and prosperity for decades to come. The President’s 2023 Budget makes historic investments in programs and activities benefiting Tribal Nations, organizations, communities, and Native American individuals. And for the first time in U.S. history, the President’s Budget is informed by direct consultation with Tribal communities, recognizing their inherent sovereignty, and honoring the Federal Government’s trust and treaty obligations to Tribal Nations. We are best served when Tribal governments are empowered to lead their communities and when Federal officials listen to and work together with Tribal leaders when formulating budgets that affect Tribal Nations.
        The President’s 2023 Budget will make these important investments while cutting the deficit by more than $1 trillion over the next decade and ensuring that no one earning less than $400,000 a year will pay an additional penny in new taxes. The investments will mean:
Health Equity for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The Budget significantly increases the Indian Health Service’s (IHS’s) funding over time, and shifts it from discretionary to mandatory funding. For the first time ever and the first year of the proposal, the Budget includes $9.1 billion in mandatory funding, an increase of $2.9 billion above 2021. After that, IHS funding would automatically grow to keep pace with healthcare costs and population growth and gradually close longstanding service and facility shortfalls. Providing IHS stable and predictable funding will improve access to high quality healthcare, rectify historical underfunding of the Indian Health system, eliminate existing facilities backlogs, address health inequities, and modernize IHS’ electronic health record system. This proposal has been informed by consultations with Tribal Nations on the issue of IHS funding and will be further refined based on ongoing consultation
Historic Investments in Tribal Nations through the Department of the Interior. The Budget makes the largest annual investment in Tribal Nations in history through $4.5 billion for the Department of the Interior’s Tribal programs, a $1.1 billion increase above the 2021 enacted level. The historic investments will support public safety and justice, social services, climate resilience, and educational needs to uphold Federal trust and treaty responsibilities and advance equity for Native communities.
Quality Facilities for Culturally-Appropriate Education. The Budget includes a $156 million increase to support construction work at seven Bureau of Indian Education schools, providing quality facilities for culturally-appropriate education with high academic standards, as well as $7 million for the Federal Boarding School Initiative, which includes a comprehensive review of the troubled legacy of federal boarding school policies.
Increased Support to Address the Crisis of Missing and Murdered Indigenous People. The Budget provides $632 million in Tribal Public Safety and Justice funding at the Department of the Interior, which collaborates closely with the Department of Justice, including on continued efforts to address the crisis of Missing and Murdered indigenous Persons.
Reduced Maternal Mortality Rates . The United States has an unacceptably high mortality rate for American Indian and Alaska Native and other women of color. The Budget includes $470 million to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity rates expand maternal health initiatives in rural communities, implement implicit bias training for healthcare providers, create pregnancy medical home demonstration projects, and address the highest rates of perinatal health disparities, including by supporting the perinatal workforce. The Budget also strengthens collection and evaluation of health equity data.
Expanded Child Care Services . One analysis finds that more than half of Native American families live-in child-care deserts. The Budget provides $20.2 billion for HHS’s early care and education programs, an increase of $3.3 billion over the 2021 enacted level. This includes $7.6 billion for the Child Care and Development Block Grant to expand access to quality, affordable child care for families.
Increased Support and Flexibility for Tribal Child Welfare Systems . Native American children are among the most overrepresented populations in foster care. The Budget proposes to expand foster care prevention services and to ensure all Tribes can adapt these evidence-based services to make them culturally appropriate in order to reduce unnecessary child removals and keep families safely together. For children who do need to be removed from their home, the Budget supports State and Tribal child welfare agencies in placing children with kin caregivers, including family members and others with close ties to the child, whenever possible and appropriate. Finally, the Budget makes the adoption tax credit fully refundable and expands the credit to include qualifying guardianships to ensure families pursuing legal guardianship are able to access these resources.
Transitioning Tribal Communities to Renewable Energy . Tribal communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, which threatens their cultural and economic well-being. The Budget complements Bipartisan Infrastructure Law investments with $670 million in Tribal climate funding at Interior. In addition, the Budget provides $150 million to electrify Tribal homes and transition Tribal colleges and universities to renewable energy. The Budget also bolsters funding for environmental justice efforts across key agencies to create good-paying jobs, clean up pollution, implement Justice40, advance racial equity, and secure environmental justice for communities that too often have been left behind, including rural and Tribal communities.
Stable Funding for Required Tribal Payments. The Budget proposes to provide mandatory funding to the Bureau of Reclamation for operation and maintenance of previously enacted Indian Water Rights Settlements, and the Administration is interested in working with the Congress on an approach to provide a mandatory funding source for future settlements. The Budget also proposes to reclassify Contract Support Costs and Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Section 105(l) leases as mandatory spending, providing certainty for Tribal Nations in meeting these ongoing needs through dedicated funding sources.
More Affordable Housing in Tribal Communities . Native Americans are seven times more likely to live in overcrowded conditions and five times more likely to have inadequate plumbing, kitchen, or heating systems than all U.S. households. The Budget helps address poor housing conditions in tribal areas by providing $1 billion in HUD to fund Tribal efforts to expand affordable housing, improve housing conditions and infrastructure, and increase economic opportunities for low-income families.
Making College More Affordable for Tribal Communities. Half of American Indian or Alaska Native and more than one-third of Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander students use Pell Grants to help pay for college. The Budget proposes to double the maximum Pell Grant by 2029, beginning with a historic $2,175 increase for the 2023-2024 school year. The Budget also invests in institutional capacity at Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs), Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs), and low-resourced institutions such as community colleges, by providing an increase of $752 million over the 2021 enacted level. This funding includes $450 million in four-year HBCUs, TCUs, and MSIs to expand research and development infrastructure.
Expanded Tribal Broadband Access . The President is committed to ensuring that every American has access to broadband, which will not only strengthen Tribal economies, but also create high-paying union jobs installing broadband. Building on key investments in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, the Budget provides $600 million for the USDA ReConnect program at USDA, which provides grants and loans to deploy broadband to unserved rural areas—especially Tribal areas— and $25 million to help rural telecommunications cooperatives refinance their Rural Utilities Service debt and upgrade their broadband facilities.
Additional Support for Tribal Producers. The Budget includes $62 million for agriculture research, education and extension grants to Tribal institutions, and $7 million to support Tribal producers through the Inter-Tribal Assistance Network. In addition, through the Tribal Forest Protection Act and other authorities, the U.S. Forest Service will make initial investments of at least $11 million in 2023 to increase equity and expand Tribal self-governance, allowing Tribal Nations to participate in restoration activities under agreements and contracts.
Helping Address Gender-Based Violence. The Budget strongly supports underserved and Tribal communities by providing $35 million for culturally-specific Violence Against Women Act program services, $10 million for underserved populations, $5.5 million to assist enforcement of tribal special domestic violence jurisdiction, and $3 million to support tribal Special Assistant U.S. Attorneys. The Budget also provides the FBI with an additional $69 million to address violent crime, including violent crime in Indian Country.
        These investments build on the Administration’s efforts to date to uphold America’s trust and treaty responsibilities with Tribal Nations, including:
Securing the Reauthorization of the Landmark Violence Against Women Act . On March 15, 2022, President Biden signed into law the Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act, which expanded special criminal jurisdiction of Tribal courts to cover non-Native perpetrators of sexual assault, child abuse, stalking, sex trafficking, and assaults on Tribal law enforcement officers on Tribal lands; and supports the development of a pilot project to enhance access to safety for survivors in Alaska Native villages. The law also supports the efforts of Tribal Nationsto prevent and prosecute cybercrimes, including cyberstalking and the nonconsensual distribution of intimate images.
Providing the Most Support Ever for Tribal Communities. Through the American Rescue Plan, the Administration invested $32 billion in Tribal communities and Native people, the largest single financial assistance investment to Tribal governments in history. The investments supported expanding COVID-19 vaccinations, testing, and treatment; increasing preventive health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives at higher risk for COVID-19; expanding hospitals’ and health clinics’ ability to serve their communities during the pandemic and beyond; and providing the IHS, Tribal health programs, and urban Indian health programs with needed funding to make up for lost reimbursements experienced during the pandemic. This historic funding also supported grants for Tribal Nations to provide temporary housing, assistance, and supportive services to survivors of domestic and dating violence, as well as supplemental funding for the StrongHearts Native Helpline, and additional funding for services for sexual assault survivors.
S ecuring Historic Infrastructure Investments to Rebuild Tribal Communities . The President’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law is rebuilding Tribal roads, bridges and rails, expanding access to clean drinking water for Native communities, helping ensure every Native American has access to high-speed internet, tackling the climate crisis, advancing environmental justice, and investing in Tribal communities that have too often been left behind by investing more than $13 billion directly in Tribal communities across the country. The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law also makes Tribal communities eligible for billions more in much-needed investments.
Making Tribal Consultation an Administration Priority and Reconvening the White House Council on Native American Affairs . In his first days in office, the President issued a memorandum making it a priority of his Administration to make respect for Tribal sovereignty and self-governance, commitment to fulfilling Federal trust and treaty responsibilities to Tribal Nations, and regular, meaningful, and robust consultation with Tribal Nations cornerstones of Federal Indian policy. Since then, the Administration has been regularly meeting with Tribal Nations on a range of Administration priorities, from implementing the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to drafting the President’s Budget.
        The Budget demonstrates the Biden-Harris Administration’s strong commitment to strengthening the Nation to Nation relationships and maximizing Federal efforts to support Tribal Nations and Tribal communities as they tackle pressing issues. Importantly, even as the Administration pursues this historic agenda, the President believes that there will be more to accomplish in the coming years, and he remains committed to working with Congress on these and other priorities."
*******

"Congress Enacts FY 2022 Appropriations for the Indian Health Service
and Other Federal Agencies

Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-004 March 22, 2022, https://hobbsstraus.com/general_memo/general-memorandum-22-004/
On March 15, 2022, President Biden signed the FY 2022 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 117-103) into law (almost halfway into the fiscal year). Government funding will now expire on September 30, 2022. The overall appropriations measure contains $1.5 trillion in government spending. In addition to FY 2022 appropriations, the legislation contains other critical measures like the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA).
Unfortunately, the bill does not contain meaningful increases for the Indian Health Service (IHS). It appropriates $6.6 billion for IHS in FY 2022, which is $394.7 million (6.3%) over the FY 2021 enacted level.1 However, this is far less than the $8.4 billion proposed by President Biden. In addition, the House-passed and Senate draft legislation contained considerably more for IHS at $8.1 billion and $7.6 billion, respectively. Nonetheless, this increase is still larger than IHS has received in recent years. For example, the IHS funding increase between FYs 2020 and 2021 was $189.1 million (3.1%), and between FYs 2019 and 2020 the increase was $242.9 million (4%).
Importantly, the omnibus does not contain the notable policy change that has been long requested by Tribal Nations and recently proposed by the Administration to transition IHS funding to an “advance appropriations” funding cycle. Advanced appropriations would mean that IHS appropriations would be enacted a year ahead of time and would not be dependent on short-term continuing resolutions. The Senate draft bill did contain this change but the House- passed appropriations bill did not. According to the FY 2022 President’s Budget request, advance appropriations would have provided “stable, predictable funding, allowing IHS, Tribal, and urban Indian health programs to effectively and efficiently manage budgets, coordinate care, and improve health outcomes for American Indians and Alaska Natives” (CJ-5).2
The omnibus also failed to enact a tribally supported change requested by the Biden Administration for Contract Support Costs (CSC) and 105( l) leases to reclassify these costs as “mandatory” funding. This was not enacted in FY 2022 appropriations, despite bipartisan support in Congress for this proposal. In FY 2022, CSC and 105( l) leases will maintain an “indefinite discretionary” appropriation. This means the IHS budget contains an estimate for these items, but IHS will have available resources to pay these costs if the amount goes above the estimate. Had mandatory appropriations been enacted, it is likely that additional funding would have been available for other critical IHS funding line items.
You can view the text of the FY 2022 omnibus here (IHS starts on page 349).
You can view the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Explanatory statement
here.
The House Committee Report (117-83) is also adopted by reference. That report can be
found here.
A summary of all 12 regular Appropriations is available here.
FY 2022 IHS Enacted Budget Overview
IHS OVERALL FUNDING
FY 2021 Enacted         $6,236,279,000
FY 2022 Admin. Request.                                 $8,471,279,000
FY 2022 House                         $8,114,166,000
FY 2022 Senate draft                                 $7,616,250,000
FY 2022 Enacted                                         $6,630,986,000
FY 2022 +/- FY 2021                         `                 $ 394,707,000 +6%

INDIAN HEALTH SERVICES
FY 2021 Enacted                                        $4,301,391,000
FY 2022 Admin.                                         $5,678,336,000
Request FY 2022 House                                $5,799,102,000
FY 2022 Senate draft                                         $5,414,143,000
FY 2022 Enacted                                         $4,660,658,000
FY 2022 +/- FY 2021                                         $ 359,267,000 +8.4%

INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES
FY 2021 Enacted                                        $917,888,000
FY 2022 Admin. Request                                 $1,500,943,000
FY 2022 House                                        $1,285,064,000
FY 2022 Senate draft                                         $1,172,107,000
FY 2022 Enacted                                          $ 940,328,000
FY 2022 +/- FY 2021                                          $ 22,440,000 +2.44%
CONTRACT SUPPORT COSTS
FY 2021 Enacted                                        $ 916,000,000
FY 2022 Admin.                                         $ 880,000,000
Request FY 2022 House                                $ 880,000,000
FY 2022 Senate draft                                         $ 880,000,000
FY 2022 Enacted                                        $ 880,000,000

ISDEAA 105( l) LEASES

FY 2021 Enacted                                        $ 101,000,000                                 
FY 2022 Admin. Request                                $ 150,000,000
FY 2022 House                                        $ 150,000,000
FY 2022 Senate draft                                         $ 150,000,000
FY 2022 Enacted                                         $ 150,000,000
__________________________
1 By comparison, for FY 2022, overall Non-Defense Domestic discretionary spending was increased by 6.7% from FY 2021, so IHS spending is slightly less than spending increases for other domestic programs.
2 The reference “CJ” refers to the Administration’s Congressional Budget Justification, and the term “Current Services” refers to medical and non-medical inflation, pay costs, and population growth. The full IHS CJ for FY 2022 can be found here.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
        " Tribal Funding: Actions Needed to Improve Information on Federal Funds That Benefit Native Americans," Government Accounting Office, GAO-22-104602, Published: May 19, 2022. Publicly Released: May 19, 2022, https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-104602, reported,
         Fast Facts
        Federal agencies are required by law to provide a variety of programs and services to tribes and their members.
        The Office of Management and Budget publishes an annual report (called a 'crosscut') on federal funding for programs that benefit Native Americans, but tribal stakeholders have expressed concerns about the report's transparency. We found that agency data shown in the report lacks details about what it represents, making it challenging for some people to understand and use the data. Also, few agencies have formal processes for incorporating tribal input and needs into budgets.
         What GAO Found
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provides information to tribal stakeholders and others on agency-reported federal funding for programs that benefit Native Americans (see figure). This information is known as the Native American Crosscut.
        Proposed Funding for Programs That Benefit Native Americans, Fiscal Years 2021 and 2022 President's Budget
Proposed Funding for Programs That Benefit Native Americans, Fiscal Years 2021 and 2022 President's Budget
         GAO found that five selected agencies—the Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Education, Health and Human Services (HHS), the Interior, and Transportation (DOT)—interpret OMB's guidance differently when identifying programs and information on federal funding to include in the crosscut. They also take different approaches to reporting data to OMB for a variety of reasons. The crosscut lacks detailed information about what the agency-reported data represent. Tribal stakeholders stated that this lack of detail makes it challenging for them to leverage the data for decision-making. By improving guidance to collect more detailed information from agencies in its request for crosscut data, OMB could help to provide crosscut users with greater clarity about the data being reported and better meet their needs.
        Two of the five agencies have formal processes for incorporating tribal input during budget formulation, and they develop budget information that reflects tribal needs to varying degrees. Specifically, HHS and Interio
r have processes for tribal leaders to provide input on initial budget submissions to OMB. Also, HHS's Indian Health Service has a tribal budget work group that develops information on tribal needs—including unmet needs—that the agency provides to OMB. However, three agencies do not have formal processes for incorporating tribal input into initial budget submissions and do not develop budget information that reflects tribal needs. Establishing formal processes would enable agencies to obtain tribal input and develop budget information that reflects tribal needs, including unmet needs. This would better ensure that decision makers and Congress have information to (1) understand resources needed to achieve program objectives and (2) assess the federal government's progress meeting its unique responsibilities to tribes and their members, in accordance with the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights recommendations.
         Why GAO Did This Study
        Federal law requires federal agencies to provide a variety of services to tribes and their members. GAO refers to the need for these services—as defined by tribes, tribal members, and other tribal organizations that administer federal programs or grants for tribes and their members—collectively as tribal needs. In 2018, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights reported that the federal government does not keep complete records of federal funding for programs serving tribes. OMB publishes a crosscut on federal funding for programs that benefit Native Americans, but tribal stakeholders have expressed concerns about its transparency.
This report examines (1) information the crosscut provides and reported challenges with using it and (2) the extent to which federal agencies obtain tribal input and reflect tribal needs during budget formulation. GAO reviewed relevant policies and procedures at OMB and five agencies that represent about 90 percent of proposed funding amounts reported in the crosscut. GAO also interviewed agency officials and selected tribal stakeholders—including a federal-tribal budget working group, federal-tribal advisory bodies, and tribal and other organizations—for their perspectives.
         Recommendations
        GAO is making seven recommendations, including that OMB improve its crosscut guidance and that certain agencies develop a formal process to consult with tribes when formulating budget requests. OMB, Education, and DOT agreed or generally agreed with the recommendations. USDA neither agreed nor disagreed.
         Recommendations for Executive Action
        Office of Management and Budget:
The Director of OMB should issue clear guidance as part of the annual budget data request for the Native American Crosscut that directs agencies to provide detailed information about how they collected data to report and selected programs to include. Such information could include the type of funding being reported (such as budget authority or estimated spending); how that funding is distributed (such as competitive discretionary grants, formula grants, or pass-through funding); and how agencies determine which programs to include in the crosscut (such as programs that are specific to tribes and their members versus programs that serve a broader audience). (Recommendation 1)
        The Director of OMB should publish in the Native American Crosscut a statement of its purpose and detailed information that it receives from agencies in response to its budget data request—including any information about agencies' methods for collecting and reporting funding data and selecting programs to include—and inform intended users of the crosscut upon its publication. (Recommendation 2)
        The Director of OMB should establish a formal process to regularly solicit and assess feedback about the Native American Crosscut from tribal stakeholders and relevant federal agencies, and to incorporate such feedback into guidance as applicable, to ensure that the information presented in the crosscut meets users' needs. (Recommendation 3)
        he Director of OMB should update OMB's annual budget guidance to direct federal agencies to assess, in consultation with tribes, tribal needs for federal programs serving tribes and their members, and submit this information as part of their publicly available budget documents. (Recommendation 7)
        Department of Transportation: The Secretary of Transportation should ensure that the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Intergovernmental Affairs develops a formal process to ensure meaningful and timely input from tribal officials when formulating budget requests and program reauthorization proposals for programs serving tribes and their members. (Recommendation 4)
        Department of Education: The Secretary of Education should ensure that the department develops a formal process to ensure meaningful and timely input from tribal officials when formulating budget requests for programs serving tribes and their members. (Recommendation 5)
         Department of Agriculture: The Secretary of Agriculture should ensure that the Office of Tribal Relations and the Office of Budget and Program Analysis develop a formal process to ensure meaningful and timely input from tribal officials when formulating budget requests and program reauthorization proposals for programs serving tribes and their members. (Recommendation 6)        
        Actions to satisfy the intent of these recommendations have not yet been taken or are being planned, or actions that partially satisfy the intent of these recommendations have been taken."
         The full report is available at: https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-22-104602.pdf, and as an accessible pdf at: https://www.gao.gov/assets/730/720612.pdf.
        Mark Fogarty, "Government Watchdog Report: More Federal Money Allocated For Tribes In 2022, But Still Not Enough Consultation," Tribal Business News, May 23, 2022, https://tribalbusinessnews.com/sections/economic-development/13914-government-watchdog-report-more-federal-money-allocated-for-tribes-in-2022-but-still-not-enough-consultation?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.j7PafB2wOzE25JeYVCNTYDw.rENydY6RlDkajAMosJSqjsQ.lk-8I7bdKvki_mz5nMdLSXA, contained this chart:
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The total of federal money across all agencies requested to benefit American Indians is up substantially this year. But the way each agency does the figuring isn’t uniform and is hard to make sense of. That should change, says a Congressional watchdog. (Illustration by Kaylee VanTuinen)"

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In the Courts

The U.S. Supreme Court

        "Indian Health Care Treaty Obligations Upheld," National Indian Health Board, accessed January 7, 2021, https://myemail.constantcontact.com/Special-News-for-Indian-Country.html?soid=1110714960954&aid=LJNQVier6VQ, reported, "On Monday, December 20, 2021, the United States determined not to appeal the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals decision in Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. U.S . to the U.S. Supreme Court. As a result, the decision will stand as a significant victory for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and other Tribal signatories to the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty and an opportunity for the Biden Administration to substantially improve Indian health care for Indian Country. Issued on August 25, 2021, the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals held that the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty obligated the United States to provide “competent physician-led health care” to the Rosebud Sioux Tribe.
        Chief William 'Bill' Smith, Chairman of the National Indian Health Board (NIHB) and Vice President of the Valdez Native Tribe, remarked that “this is a historic decision. The Court and this Administration recognized what Tribal Nations have declared and embraced for generations - Treaties are still the supreme law of the land and carry unending obligations of the United States to Tribes for health care services. By not appealing this decision, this Administration has honored Tribal treaties. The National Indian Health Board now calls upon this Administration to carry out those obligations by improving and fully funding health care services for all Tribal nations.” This means strengthening the Nation-to-Nation relationship to provide reliable, affordable, quality health care and address health disparities in Indian Country."
        "The Rosebud Sioux Tribe sued the U.S. for failing to provide adequate health care at the Indian Health Service Rosebud hospital in Rosebud, South Dakota. Persistent deficiencies existed at the hospital which led the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals to conclude that 'the Government must do better.' The federal government must do better and the NIHB will be actively engaged in how the Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services carries out its duties as highlighted by this important decision."

        "Supreme Court to review ICWA case: Updated: Texas v. Haaland: ‘The far-reaching consequences of this case will be felt for generations,’" ICT, February 28, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/supreme-court-to-review-icwa-case, reported that the United States granted certiorari to hear Texas v. Haaland . Plaintifs in the case have sought to overturn the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), which was enacted in 1978 to stop the harm caused to Indian children who were removed from their Indian nations to be adopted by non-Indians, without the consent of the concerned Indian Nations, and the long-term damage caused to the tribes by the practice. ICWA, considered the "gold standard" of child welfare practice, initiated a significant improvement in child welfare policy in practice. The District Court ruled that ICWA was unconstitutional, in that it violated the Tenth Amendment, and, further, that much of the act was in violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. The court of appeals partially overturned the trial decision, but left standing the finding of unconstitutional of several important sections of the act. The briefs of the parties and of those filing as friends of the court can be accessed via: https://turtletalk.blog/2021/09/03/four-cert-petitions-filed-in-texas-v-haaland-brackeen-icwa-case/. The case is to be argued before the Supreme Court during its October 2022 term. See history and commentary concerning ICWA and the attacks on it in the Research Notes and Articles secions of this issue.

        Kolby KickingWoman, "Ruling Stands, Mcgirt Not to Be Overturned," ICT, January 27, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/841ac859-7b2c-37d7-9460-4f63e85e1428/01.27.22_The_Weekly_1_.pdf, reported, " The U.S. Supreme Court will not overturn the McGirt decision after denying 31 separate appeals petitions from the state of Oklahoma.
        However, on Jan. 21, the court agreed to review one case [ Oklahoma v Castro-Huerta] that will look at how far the decision applies. Specifically, if the state can prosecute non-Natives who commit crimes against Natives on tribal lands."

        Jenna Kunze, "Maine Tribes Secure Legislative Wins—but not Sovereignty," Native News On-Line, May 04, 2022, https://www.nativenewsonline.net/sovereignty/maine-tribes-secure-legislative-wins-but-not-sovereignty, reported, " On Apr. 18, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the Penobscots’ appeal of a lower-court decision rejecting their claims to ownership of the waters of the Penobscot River, which surrounds their island reservation. The suit, filed 10 years ago, was one of the tribe’s longest court battles with the state."

        Kolby KickingWoman, "Supreme Court hands down another tribal sovereignty win: Multiple federal Indian law cases still to be ruled on," ICT, June 15, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/supreme-court-hands-down-another-tribal-sovereignty-win, reported, " The Supreme Court issued a 5-4 decision Wednesday morning, allowing Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, located near El Paso, Texas, to offer electronic bingo at its gaming facility.
        Conservative Justice Neil Gorsuch wrote the opinion for the court and was joined by fellow conservative Justice Amy Coney Barrett and the three liberal justices to form the majority opinion.
         Mavis Harris, " U.S. Supreme Court Decision Reinforces Equal Application of IGRA Across Indian Countrym" National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), June 17, 2022, https://www.nigc.gov/news/detail/u.s-supreme-court-decision-reinforces-equal-application-of-igra-across-indian-country, commented, " The United States Supreme Court issued its decision this week in Ysleta del Sur Pueblo, et al. v. Texas . The decision reinforces the equal application of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act across Indian Country, as well as the jurisdiction of Tribes and the National Indian Gaming Commission over that gaming.
         The Court’s decision held that the Ysleta del Sur and Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas Restoration Act only bans those gaming activities also banned in Texas and did not provide for state gaming laws to act as surrogate federal law on Indian lands. Because Texas permits bingo, the Pueblo may conduct Class II bingo under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act subject to regulation by the National Indian Gaming Commission.
        In response to the Supreme Court’s decision, the National Indian Gaming Commission Chairman E. Sequoyah Simermeyer said, “the United States’ position in the litigation was to affirm the application of IGRA and the National Indian Gaming Commission’s jurisdiction as the federal regulatory body for all Indian gaming unless federal law states otherwise. The NIGC recognizes the importance of the decision’s holding for Indian gaming’s long standing regulatory framework.” Chairman Simermeyer continued, “The decision is significant to hundreds of Indian gaming operations licensed by over 240 tribal governments on Indian lands in 29 states in accordance with the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act’s structure.”
        The National Indian Gaming Commission wishes to congratulate the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo on the certainty the decision provides for the tribes impacted by the federal restoration law and who are conducting gaming on Indian land in the State of Texas."

Lower Federal Courts

        The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in March 2022 that Bighorn County Electric Cooperative had violated Crow Tribal Sovereignty and the consensual relationship between the Nation and the Coop by turning off the Crow Nation's power without warning or consent ( Cultural Survival Quarterly, June 2022).

        "Indigenous Peoples’ Freedom Religion Upheld: Amber Ortega, Tohono O’odham Nation, Acquitted in Border Wall Blockade Case in Tucson, Arizona," International Treaty Council, January 26, 2022, http://hosted.verticalresponse.com/1383891/7f3c41ba43/545546365/aa063f1824/, reported, "On January 19, 2022, Amber Lee Ortega, a member of the Tohono O’odham Nation was found not guilty by the United States Federal Courts. She was facing charges for blocking the construction of the United States border wall in traditional Hia Ced O’odham territories that now lie within the Organ Pipe National Monument Park.
        At the insistence of the Trump Administration , construction of a 30 ft. high wall at the Mexico-U.S. border had begun within the park near the A’al Waippa (Quitoboquito Springs) in January 2020. On September 9, 2020, two traditional Hia Ced/Tohono O’odham women, Amber Lee Ortega and Nellie Jo David were visiting this spring, long-held sacred by the O’odham, to pray. They immediately saw the destruction being carried out on the land and spring, threatening endangered species including the Sonora mud that only lives in this ancient water source. Without hesitation, the two women used their bodies to block the border wall construction by heavy equipment for two hours.
        They were arrested by National Park Service and transported to an all-male detention center, Civic Core where they were exposed to the dangers of COVID-19 and held for 48 hours.
        Since their arrest, Ortega and David have been through a series of hearings, surveillance by US Marshalls, and fines that have added to their trauma as Indigenous women protecting their sacred areas.
         Charged with two misdemeanors, violating a closure order and interfering with an agency function, specifically border wall construction, Nellie Jo David accepted probation and a fine, but Amber Lee Ortega chose to take her case to court. She argued that she had the right as a Hia Ced O’odham woman to exercise her religious faith through her actions to protect A’al Waippa, which has been a ceremonial site for O’odham since time immemorial.
        Fernando Martinez, Hia Ced O’odham elder celebrated this outcome. He affirmed that 'Amber’s victory in court is a justification of the many years of struggle for the Hia Ced O’odham who have been working to reclaim our homelands and rights and access to our sacred sites and protection of our ancestral burial grounds since the forced removal of Hia Ced O’odham in the 1950s. The argument based on the Religious Freedom Restoration Act is a win because it supports the voices of Hia Ced O’odham throughout history, that we have the right to pray and visit our homelands and ancestors'
        U.S. Magistrate Judge Leslie A. Bowman, the presiding Judge in the case, ruled that the federal government had imposed a "substantial burden" on Ortega's exercise of her religious faith and that of the Hia Ced O’odham by limiting access to their sacred spring. She based her acquittal on the US Religious Freedom Restoration Act.
        Amber Ortega’s case and subsequent victory resonated throughout the world, inspiring many Indigenous Peoples who are also standing up for their traditional waters, lands, and cultural rights. On December 9th, 2021, IITC’s staff attorney Summer Aubrey sent an urgent action communication addressing Amber Ortega’s situation and impeding trial to United Nations Special Rapporteurs on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Human Rights defenders, Cultural Rights, Freedom of Religion or Belief, Contemporary forms of Racism, and the Human Right to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation.
         Francisco Cali Tzay, Mayan Cakchiquel, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, based at the University of Arizona in Tucson, also commented on the broad impacts of this decision: 'Article 25 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples affirms our right to maintain continuing spiritual relationships to the lands we have traditionally possessed and used. As United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, I welcome and congratulate the decision of the US Federal Judge in Tucson Arizona to acquit Ms. Ortega based on her freedom of religion. This is an important victory for the rights of Indigenous Peoples around the world, and we appreciate Ms. Ortega’s resistance to the destruction of this sacred place for her Nation. This decision serves as an example for other countries and as an inspiration for all the Indigenous Peoples.'
        Peter Yucupicio, Chairman of the Pascua Yaqui Tribe neighboring the Tohono O’odham in Southern Arizona stated 'as Yaquis, we practice our freedom of religion in our sacred places every day. These are Indigenous lands and sacred places that Amber was defending for the Tohono O’odham Nation. Her victory is important for the Yaquis and other tribes as well because it recognizes our rights to defend our cultures and beliefs. Standing up to defend our sacred places and ceremonial ways of life is not a crime.' He expressed that 'Amber honors our ancestors and hers with the action she took.'
        For more information contact Amy R. Juan, IITC Arizona Tribal and Community Liaison at (520) 539-1810 or amy@treatycouncil.org."

        "U.S. District Court Affirms Saint Regis Mohawk’s Reservation Boundaries," Native News Online, March 15, 2022, https://nativenewsonline.net/sovereignty/u-s-district-court-affirms-saint-regis-mohawk-s-reservation-boundaries, reported, "Yesterday, U.S. District Judge Lawrence Kahn wrote in a summary judgment ruling that New York State’s purchase of the Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe’s (SRMT) reservation lands in the 1800s violated the federal Non-Intercourse Act. The lands purchased by the state are known as the 'Hogansburg Triangle' and is in the center of the reservation reserved for use by SRMT tribal members in a 1796 Treaty, which was ratified by U.S. Congress on May 31, 1796."
        "New York State purchased nearly 2,000 acres of reservation land from the Tribe in 1824 and 1825, without the presence of a federal commissioner or a subsequent legislation approving the transfer of title. The Non-Intercourse Act was one of the U.S. Government’s adopted six federal statutes beginning in 1790 and ending in 1834 to regulate commerce with Indian Nations and to clearly establish the rules for the purchase of tribal property. The act specified that only legislation ratified by the U.S. Congress could transfer title of lands to a purchaser."

         James Doubek, "Native American tribes reach a tentative opioid settlement with J&J and distributors," NPR, February 1, 2022. https://www.npr.org/2022/02/01/1077348290/native-american-opioid-settlement-johnson-and-johnson?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jl3wxPPnaVkuwv7Vgpa97yA.ruMSycYDmFUKXAOR9KxtYvg.lAeak-ojmnkK-xZAw0Zd2vA, reported, " The drug manufacturer Johnson & Johnson and the opioid distributors AmerisourceBergen, McKesson and Cardinal Health will pay [more than 400] Native American tribes $590 million under the terms of a proposed settlement [of the opioid case] filed Tuesday.
        The number of deaths from opioid overdoses has been rising across the country, but the problem has been growing disproportionately among Native Americans and Alaska Natives in recent years."

         Hallie Golden, "Indigenous nations sue North Dakota over ‘sickening’ gerrymandering: The suit charges that diluting Indigenous power violates their voting rights and will handicap tribe members who run for office," the Guardian, February 21, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/feb/21/native-american-tribes-sue-north-dakota-gerrymandering?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jUoiuLDQPdUCFTlkaln4Kkw.rWcwGVcX6RE-j1TbGNJFb1w.lBvZVr7ySakWEkCl4ji-Yuw, reported, that the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa and Spirit Lake Nation " have sued the state [of North Dakota], alleging that the [new legislative district] map, which was meant to account for population changes identified in the 2020 census, doesn’t comply with section 2 of the Voting Rights Act.
        The lawsuit, filed earlier this month, claims the map packs some Indigenous voters into one House subdistrict, while putting other 'nearby Native American voters into two other districts dominated by white voters who bloc vote against Native Americans’ preferred candidates”. It adds that complying with the Voting Rights Act would mean placing the two nations in a single district, where they would 'comprise an effective, geographically compact majority,'”

        Joaqlin Estus, "Federal Government Sues Alaska Over Subsistence," ICT, May 26, 2022 , https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/federal-government-sues-alaska-over-subsistence, reported, "Subsistence is vitally important to villages, as it is to the economy of all of rural Alaska. It's also deeply ingrained in Indigenous way of life
         When fish numbers are low, who gets to continue to harvest fish in rural Alaska? Federal agencies say only local, rural residents. The state of Alaska says all Alaskans.
         The Biden administration filed suit [in the Federal District for the District of Alaska] on May 17 against the Alaska Department of Fish and Game over fish openings on the Kuskokwim River during fish shortages."

        The American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico, The Navajo Nation Department of Justice, The Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the UCLA Voting Rights Project and DLA Piper brought suit in Federal District Court against San Juan County, NM for violating the voting rights of Navajo citizens, who are 40 percent of the county residents, for packing them into one of the five county commission districts where they have a majority. A map proposed by the Navajo Nation Human Rights Commission would have Navajos having a majority in two districts ("Long Ignored Navajo Voters Want Clear Road to Fir Representation," The Torch, The Newsletter of the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico, Spring 2022).

        Chris Aadland, "Lawsuit Filed Against Hotel Wanting to Ban Native People," ICT, March 24, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d8e40cbf-8791-0f7e-f007-02afd4a67178/03.24.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " Native groups organized a rally in Rapid City, South Dakota on Wednesday and a federal civil rights class action lawsuit was filed against Grand Gateway Hotel
        A social media post from an owner of a South Dakota hotel attempting to ban Native Americans from the property
following a weekend shooting drew quick condemnation from tribal leaders, advocates and the city's mayor – and a lawsuit."
State and Local Courts

        Chris Aadland, "Hoping for an end to years-long treaty rights fight: A 2019 U.S. Supreme Court ruling affirmed off-reservation hunting treaty rights for the Crow Tribe. Wyoming officials have been resisting that decision ever since." ICT, January 25. 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/hoping-for-an-end-to-yearslong-treaty-rights-fight, reported that after the Crow had their right to hunt off reservation in Wyoming affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2019, the state refused to comply, initially being supported by state court decisions. However, the Crow won again in Wyoming 4th Judicoal District court on December 3, 2021, and the Montana Supreme Court refused to overturn their victory in a January 2022 decision ("Wyoming Court Affirms Crow Tribal Hunting Rights. Four Points Press, December 16, 2021, https://fourpointspress.com/2021/12/16/wyoming-court-affirms-crow-tribal-hunting-rights/).

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Tribal Government and State and Local Government Developments

        Sam Metz Rick Bowmer, "Native Students Exercise Right To Wear Regalia At Graduation," ICT, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/native-students-exercise-right-to-wear-regalia-at-graduation, reported, " Arizona (https://apnews.com/article/lifestyle-education-arizona-bills-native-americans-8f30a4d64c70b9214540c883963c8078), California, Kansas (https://apnews.com/article/4862136bd0ed46c1b7d0c2ca1ad77f58), Montana (https://apnews.com/article/59952d0bfd584ad392706b0aa7ff1a82), North Dakota (https://apnews.com/article/6ce2ad6264fe45079363c5e83706f673), Oklahoma, Oregon , South Dakota (https://apnews.com/article/401f5920af9f4f6c8bd1d77fd57d2a05) and Washington all recently enacted laws that either enshrine students’ rights or bar schools from enforcing dress codes banning tribal regalia. After passing through the legislature (https://apnews.com/article/alaska-discrimination-race-and-ethnicity-e17421ecaa06cd771076969f44454ff3), a bill with similar provisions is being sent to Alaska Gov. Mike Dunleavy.
        In Utah, Paiute Chairwoman Corrina Bow brought the issue to state lawmakers after last year's two Iron County incidents. The district had no formal rules prohibiting Native students from donning regalia."

        Jenna Kunze, "Maine Tribes Secure Legislative Wins—but not Sovereignty," Native News On-Line, May 04, 2022, https://www.nativenewsonline.net/sovereignty/maine-tribes-secure-legislative-wins-but-not-sovereignty, reported, "On Monday, May 2, Maine Governor Janet Mills signed into law a bill that brings the state’s tribes closer to sovereignty, after halting a more comprehensive bill the previous week.
        For the last 42 years, since the federal Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act (the Settlement Act) was enacted in 1980, Maine has reserved some powers over the state’s four federally recognized tribes, known collectively as the Wabanaki Nations, that would normally be held by the federal government. That distinction limits tribes’ authority in setting their own tax structures, court jurisdictions, regulations on fishing and hunting on tribal land, land use and acquisition rights, and access to federal funding."
        The full text of LD 585, HP 428, is at: https://legislature.maine.gov/bills/display_ps.asp?PID=1456&snum=130&paper=HP0428. Here is the official summary.
        "Penobscot Nation and Passamaquoddy Tribe the Authority To Exercise Jurisdiction under the Federal Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010
SUMMARY
This bill amends the Act To Implement the Maine Indian Claims Settlement by:
1. Extending the criminal jurisdiction of the Penobscot Nation and the Passamaquoddy Tribe to persons who are not members of any federally recognized Indian tribe, nation, band or other group when such persons commit certain crimes on the Penobscot Indian Reservation or the Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation;
2. Expanding the jurisdiction of the Penobscot Nation and the Passamaquoddy Tribe from criminal offenses with a maximum period of imprisonment of one year and a maximum fine of $5,000 for any one offense to criminal offenses with a maximum period of imprisonment of 3 years and a maximum fine of $15,000 for any one offense but not to exceed a total penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for 9 years, as authorized by the federal Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010, Public Law 111-211; and
3. Ensuring that defendants prosecuted in the Penobscot Nation Tribal Court and Passamaquoddy Tribal Court have the rights afforded defendants by the federal Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010, Public Law 111-211; 25 United States Code, Section 1302 (2019); and the United States Constitution."
The bill also includes tax exemptions for tribal members working on and doing business on tribal land. It also allows for tribal gambling and sets a basis for tribal-state collaboration."

         Andy Lyman, "After heated debate over race, NM Senate approves its own redistricting map," New Mexico Political Report, December 17, 2021, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2021/12/17/after-heated-debate-over-race-nm-senate-approves-its-own-district-map/?mc_cid=9c13b7b028&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported,
By https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2021/12/17/after-heated-debate-over-race-nm-senate-approves-its-own-district-map/?mc_cid=9c13b7b028&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported,
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"The New Mexico state Senate approved a proposal to redraw its own districts on Thursday by a 25-13 vote. SB 2, sponsored by Sens. Linda Lopez and Daniel Ivey-Soto, both Albuquerque Democrats, would redraw the state Senate districts and also adopt a Native American consensus map that tribes and pueblos spent months crafting."
Susan Montoya Bryan, "Designated Unit Will Specialize On Indigenous Crime Victims," The Paper, December 17th, 2021, https://abq.news/2021/12/designated-unit-will-specialize-on-indigenous-crime-victims/, reported, " Prosecutors in New Mexico’s busiest judicial district and the state Indian Affairs Department are teaming up to create a special unit to focus on investigating cases of missing or slain Native Americans.
        State Indian Affairs Secretary Lynn Trujillo and Bernalillo County District Attorney Raúl Torrez announced a memorandum of understanding Thursday to form the investigative team. Under the agreement, the unit within the district attorney’s office will help a statewide task force with analysis, case investigations and interventions
."

        New Mexico: "AG Announces New Law Enforcement Initiative Targeting Crimes Against Indigenous Women: New Task Force Will Evaluate, Investigate, And Prosecute Cases Involving Missing Indigenous Persons," The Paper, January 27th, 2022 , https://abq.news/2022/01/ag-announces-new-law-enforcement-initiative-targeting-crimes-against-indigenous-women/, reported, "On Thursday, [ New Mexico] Attorney General Hector Balderas announced that the
Office of the Attorney General (OAG) is partnering with the Albuquerque Police
Department (APD), to review unsolved missing and Indigenous persons homicide
cases. Special agents and prosecutors from the OAG are working directly with APD’s
cold case unit to evaluate, investigate, and prosecute cases involving missing and
indigenous persons
.
        As part of a broader coalition to address the epidemic of Missing and Murdered
Indigenous Women (MMIW), Senator Pinto and the Indian Affairs Department have
been instrumental in helping the OAG craft legislation and bring this issue to the
forefront. Senate Bill 12, endorsed by the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women
and Relatives Task Force removes obstacles to the pursuit of justice for MMIW
survivors, victims, and relatives by closing jurisdictional loopholes in the investigation
and prosecution of MMIW cases, including funding for case specialists to provide
education and training and assist stakeholders statewide with MMIW investigations
."

        Cedar Attanasio, "New Mexico Tribes Still Waiting On Overdue Education Plan," The Paper, January 4, 2022, https://abq.news/2022/01/new-mexico-tribes-still-waiting-on-overdue-education-plan/, reported, " New Mexico’s plan to address the needs of underserved Indigenous students hasn’t been shared with tribal leaders or the public despite promises to do so last year.
        A draft of the plan was ready as early as October and Native American leaders were expecting to be invited to comment on the document ahead of its scheduled public release on Dec 1. That never happened, and advocates say the draft still is awaiting approval by Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham."

        Robert Nott and Daniel J. Chacón, "What passed, what failed in the legislative session," New Mexico Political Report, February 18, 2022, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/02/18/what-passed-what-failed-in-the-legislative-session/?mc_cid=16e51bb8a1&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported on the completed work of the New Mexico state legislature, " Native American language and culture teachers would earn the same salary as educators in the middle level of the state’s three-tier licensing system under House Bill 60, which won unanimous approval from both chambers."
        " Environment: The House and Senate unanimously approved House Bill 164, which requires the state Environment Department to coordinate a statewide effort to clean up and reclaim legacy uranium mine and mill sites."
        The Senate passed a bill to create a statewide clean fuel standard, while Senate Bill 14, aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector, died in the House. The proposed Clean Future Act, House Bill 6, with a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions was approved by two committees but never received a vote on the House floor, nor did a proposed constitutional amendment providing New Mexico residents with the right to clean and healthy air, water and soil receive a floor vote.
        Bill 54, that would have prohibited the storage of spent nuclear fuel in New Mexico, a counter to plans for such a development in Southern New Mexico, failed to get passed by the Senate.
Susan Montoya Bryan, "Jicarilla Tribe Oks Water Lease To Address Colorado River Shortage," The Paper, January 20th, 2022, https://abq.news/2022/01/jicarilla-tribe-oks-water-lease-to-address-colorado-river-shortage/, reported, " A Native American tribe has agreed to lease more of its water to help address dwindling supplies in the Colorado River Basin, officials announced Thursday.
        The agreement involves the Jicarilla Apache Nation, the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission and The Nature Conservanc
y.
        The tribe has agreed to lease up to 6.5 billion gallons (25 billion liters) of water per year to the state to bolster flows for endangered species and increase water security for New Mexico."        

         Hannah Grover, "Land acquisition near Mt. Taylor brings sacred sites out of private ownership, preserves habitat," New Mexico Political Report, June 9, 2020, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/06/09/land-acquisition-near-mt-taylor-brings-sacred-sites-out-of-private-ownership-preserves-habitat/?mc_cid=418a24c2e0&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported, "Sacred lands that have been cut off from access will once again be accessible to the public, including the Indigenous people who once served as stewards of those lands.
        Conservation groups, tribes, federal officials and state leaders teamed up to acquire 54,000 acres near Laguna and west of Albuquerque
." A portion of this land had been acquired by the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, who will manage it, with the rest to be transferred over a five year period.

        The New Mexico Legislature passed and sent to Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham a bill authorizing $14.8 million support Navajo Nation chapter capital outlay projects. the projects include bathroom additions, house renovations, road and transfer station improvements, water and power lines, broadband and senior and veterans center construction (Rima Krisst, "NM OK's capital outlay funds for chapters," Navajo Times,
March 2, 2022, https://navajotimes.com/reznews/nm-oks-capital-outlay-funds-for-chapters/).

         The Navajo Nation Police Department, in April 2022, reduced its understaffing by cross-commissioning 5 New Mexico State Police officers who had completed Navajo police training to have authority on the Navajo reservation (Donovan Quintero, "Cross-commissioning adds police services for Dine," Navajo Times, April 14, 2022).

        Hannah Metzger, "Colorado Senate OKs new office, alert system for missing and murdered Indigenous people," Colorado Politics, April, 29, 2022, https://www.coloradopolitics.com/users/profile/hannah%20metzger/, reported, " that Colorado's Senate has passed and sent to it's House, Senate Bill 150 (http://leg.colorado.gov/bills/sb22-150) [that] would create the Office of Liaison for Missing and Murdered Indigenous Relatives to facilitate the investigations and provide other supports. The bill would also create an emergency alert system to report active crimes and a community advisory board to help lead the office."
        "Under the bill, the new office would assist on investigations involving Indigenous victims, review cases and develop best practices, data collection and training for law enforcement agencies. The office would also assist families and tribes in how to navigate the system and would coordinate between federal, state and local law enforcement agencies and organizations," and the Colorado Bureau of Investigation would be required to publish a database on missing Indigenous people and notify tribes and media outlets when it gets a report of a missing or murdered Native person. These changes will overcome the difficulties of tribes and their members to find out if a relative has been killed or is missing and the extreme difficulty Indian nations have in undertaking investigations of these cases when they are not actively being pursued by mainstream law enforcement.

         The Colorado Department of Transportation debut on PBS, in January 2022, a film, Durango 550 - Path of Ancestral Puebloans, documenting its cooperation with regional American Indian Nations and archeologists in unearthing, studying and sharing archeological findings in southwest Colorado ("CDOT documentary depicts new era of archeology in Durango," Southern Ute Drum, January 14, 2022).

         Liz Juarez, "Assembly Bill Aims to End ‘Squaw Valley’ Name Debate," Gwire, February 15, 2022, https://gvwire.com/2022/02/15/assembly-bill-aims-to-end-squaw-valley-name-debate/?amp=1&bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.j9OYXu693WECyf2wZKhIcwQ.rBR4tMs-IaUqSkSfkPanuwg.l24pqQHdupEe2HZeT41f-eQ, reported, "While the battle over the name of the foothill community Squaw Valley continues in Fresno County, a new Assembly bill proposes to decide the debate.
        
Assembly members James C. Ramos (D-Highland), the first California Native American elected to the state Legislature, and Cristina Garcia (D-Bell Gardens), chair of the California Legislative Women’s Caucus, introduced Assembly Bill 2022 that would prohibit the use of the word “squaw” for geographic features and place names in California by Jan. 1, 2024."

        Mark Fogarty, "Next Round, California Tribal Housing Funds Will Be Much Larger," Tribal Business News, April 25, 2022, https://tribalbusinessnews.com/sections/real-estate/13879-next-round-california-tribal-housing-funds-will-be-much-larger, reported, "The first three rounds of funding in the Multifamily Housing Program of the California Department of Housing and Co mmunity Development produced goose eggs for tribal programs." But upcoming California housing money for tribes was expected to be substantial, including support for building the 54-unit Windsor Affordable Housing to be built in Sonoma County, CA by the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians, with funding from the Mult-family Housing Program of the California Department of Housing and Community Development."

        Chris Aadland, "Tribal Leaders Allege State Intentionally Ignores Treaty," ICT, March 17, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/39e5177e-15bb-6252-65a0-d2c686740962/03.17.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " In 2015, the state of Washington began investigating two enrolled citizens of the Tulalip Tribes for alleged illegal shellfish trafficking. More than six years later, the charges have been dismissed but the men’s fish-buying business is shuttered, and they say broader concerns of state interference in tribal sovereignty remain unaddressed.
        The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) investigation into Hazen Shopbell and Anthony Paul, who owned one of Puget Sound’s largest fish-buying operations, came amid complaints from non-Indigenous fish buyers about loss of business due to an alleged monopoly involving tribal fishers. While the resulting criminal charges didn’t produce any convictions, Shopbell and Paul say the ordeal led to the collapse of their business and ended a period of fairer prices for the crab and fish caught by Indigenous people."

        Stewart Huntington, "Rapid City Puts Up $9 Million for Native Center," ICT, January 13, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d51c3018-9ab7-cf25-40b0-6351988c2f65/01.13.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " The city council in this South Dakota reservation border community [Rapid City] voted Monday to allocate $9 million toward the construction of an urban Native community center in a move that was seen as groundbreaking.
        'This is the first time that a substantial investment has been made (by the city) to an Indigenous effort in our community,' said Tatewin Means, Oglala Lakota and a volunteer with the group behind the effort to build the center."

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Tribal Developments

        "HEARTH Act provides boost for tribes to take over leasing," Tribal Business News, May 2, 2022, https://tribalbusinessnews.com/sections/real-estate/13889-hearth-act-provides-boost-for-tribes-to-take-over-leasing, reported, " Tribes that apply for expedited leasing authority can flex their sovereignty to remove bottlenecks that get in the way of tribal members receiving mortgages.
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Fewer than 100 tribes in 10 years have taken control of their real estate and other leasing activities as permitted under the HEARTH Act, which allowed them to adopt this key sovereignty feature starting in 2013. Types of leases approved include residential, business, agricultural, solar and renewable energy. Some tribes may be double-counted for different lease types. (Graphic by Kaylee VanTuinen)."

         As COVID-19 continues to plague the United States, as well as the entire world, it also has serious impacts in Native communities. COVID Collaborative and Social Policy Analytics reported that in the United States 162,082 young people under 18, or about 1 in every 450 children, had suffered a loss of a parent or caregiver from January 2020 to November 2021, with in excess of 2000 Native youth having lost a caregiver (Rima Krisst, "More than 2K Native children lost caregivers to COVID-19," Navajo Times, May 5, 2022).

         In June 2022, COVID cases were rising in the U.S. with the new omicron subvariant dominant. As of June 6, Navajo Nation reported cases rising, with 156 cases reported in the previous three days with 32 of the nation's 110 chapters experiencing uncontrolled spread. In all, as of June 6, Navajo Nation had suffered 54,622 cases with 1795 deaths. Less deadly, but extremely painful Monkey Pox had been rising world-wide, [with the largest number of cases in the U.S. in New York, mostly experienced by men who had sex with other men]. As of June 6, one case had been reported in Arizona, in Maricopa County (Rima Krist, "Covid cases rising, monkeypox found in Arizona," Navajo Times, June 9, 2022).

        In January 2022, the U.S. Army sent a 20 person medical team to the Northern Navajo Medical Center in Ship Rock, AZ to help with the overload of COVID cases that has been overwhelming to the Navajo Nation and the medical center. It was part of a 220-person army medical deployment to give assistance with treating COVID in eight states ("Military medical teams support local hospitals," Navajo Times, January 27, 2022).

        Because COVID-19 is highly contagious and had already hit the Navajo Nation very hard, the Navajo Nation Council passed a series of bills, beginning in March 2020 allowing its 110 chapters to do business with a temporary quorum of 3 resident members, that were extended several times as the pandemic continued. In April 2020 the council passed a bill allowing chapters to conduct business virtually with a quorum of 3 (Hannah John, "Officials debate lowering chapter quorum to 3," Navajo Times, January 20, 2022).

        Elena Sheppard, "From ‘tribes’ to ‘powwows’: summer camps finally reckon with abuse of Indigenous traditions: Some camps are making amends for a long history of cultural appropriation – including made-up, ‘Native-sounding’ names – and some are not," The Guardian, April 5, https://www.theguardian.com/music/2022/apr/05/american-summer-camps-rethinking-indigenous-names-rituals?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jVns3iYKAkkKCr_pQ_OwExQ.r4cKlGID1skyiatNSgDNSIg.l8rQIatK_RUS6q15e3pyTTA , reported, " Across the continent, the camping community is at last slowly grappling with Native American cultural appropriation. Many camps have begun the long work of reparations, starting – though not ending – with renaming. In February, Camp Kummoniwannago in Waterloo, Canada, changed its name after requests from the local Indigenous community. In 2021, Camp Iroquois in New York changed its name to Camp Evergreen. In February, at the national American Camp Association (ACA) conference, renaming was on a lot of camp professionals’ lips, said presenter Andrew Corley."

        "NMAI to Dedicate National Native: American Veterans Memorial Nov. 11, Southern Ute Drum, May 20, 2022, https://www.sudrum.com/eEditions/DrumPDF/2022/SUDrum-20220520.pdf, reported, " The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian will dedicate the National Native American Veterans Memorial Friday, Nov. 11. The dedication ceremony will take place on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day event (Nov. 11– 13) to honor Native veterans. A Native veterans pro- cession will take place be- fore the start of the dedication ceremony."

        Michael Rubinkama, " Native Children's Remains to Be Moved from Army Cemetery," ICT, June 15, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/native-childrens-remains-to-be-moved-from-army-cemetery, reported, " The children to be disinterred [on the grounds of the U.S. Army War College who died at a government- run boarding school at the Carlisle Barracks] came from the Washoe, Catawba, Umpqua, Ute, Oneida and Aleut tribes." The remains were being sent to the children’s closest living relatives.

        "NCAI Demands Accountability from Washington Commanders, NFL on Native 'Themed' Mascots," The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), February 2, 2022, https://www.ncai.org/news/articles/2022/02/02/ncai-demands-accountability-from-washington-commanders-nfl-on-native-themed-mascots, stated, " The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) demands accountability for the harms caused by Native 'themed' mascots and imagery as the National Football League’s (NFL) Washington, DC franchise revealed its new team name, the 'Commanders.' The announcement by the Washington Commanders comes a year and a half after it retired the “R-word” name and mascot, a decision it reached following years of protest from Tribal Nations, leaders, and activists. However, following the announcement, the team released videos to promote its new identity which prominently displayed the offensive branding from its previous incarnation." The team did not issue an apology for using its previous name (see the whole of this report in U.S. Activities, above).

        The U.S. Attorney's Office has decided not to charge 33 Native protestors and allies who were arrested for occupying the BIA lobby of the Department of Interior building in Washington, DC on October 14, 2021 ("Charges dropped against 33 protestors who occupied BIA building," Navajo Times, January 27, 2022).

        Joseph Martin, "Chickahominy Tribe reacquires ancestral lands: ‘That’s where we were when the settlers came,'" ICT, March 13, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/chickahominy-tribe-reacquires-ancestral-lands?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jJQBQ8jOfRE27JCTp2NTPHQ.r2YnriT7cW0qm7VJaX6Qr6A.lZ-S8HaqOvkm924sYpp6AYA, reported, " Four years after the Chickahominy Tribe received federal recognition, some of its traditional lands will be going back under tribal control.
        The tribe, based near Richmond, Virginia, purchased the land known as Mamanahunt along the Chickahominy River using $3.5 million in funds from outgoing Gov. Ralph Northam’s budget
." Reacquiring the land provides the nation a venue for cultural preservation and interpretation, and a place to properly rebury remains removed during archeological digs.

        Evan Visconti, "Rappahannock Tribe celebrates return of Fones Cliffs acreage," Virginia Mercury, April 4, 2022, https://www.virginiamercury.com/2022/04/04/rappahannock-tribe-celebrates-return-of-fones-cliffs-acreage/?emci=4fcd7346-a0e3-ec11-b656-281878b85110&emdi=c690fa99-7ced-ec11-b47a-281878b83d8a&ceid=556351m, reported, "Some dreams take generations to accomplish, as was the case when the Rappahannock Tribe celebrated the return of more than 400 acres of their tribal homeland Friday. The tribe has endured centuries of displacement stemming back to 1608 when English explorer John Smith made his first voyage up the Rappahannock River.
         The tribe will reacquire land on the Rappahannock River that is home to a historic tribal village named Pissacoack. The Richmond County property also contains a section of Fones Cliffs, a four mile stretch of unique wildlife habitat consisting of white-colored cliffs that rise over 100 feet above the river."
        "The National Audubon Society has called Fones Cliffs an important bird area as they are home to the largest bald eagle population in the mid-Atlantic and the associated wetlands are a critical waterfowl habitat, according to Amanda Bassow, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation northeast regional director. She noted, 'Protecting this land also protects the river, its habitats and its water quality so that it can continue to support river herring, striped bass and Atlantic sturgeon that have called this river home for 85 million years.' said Bassow. The Rappahannock Nation will provide trails for public access on the land, while undertaking conservation work."
        The Cliffs were reacquired via a partnership among the Tribe, Chesapeake Conservancy, and The Wilderness Society, with the assistance of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation supported by a grant from Walmart’s Acres for America program. The program's purpose is to offset Walmart’s real estate footprint by protecting important places to fish and wildlife and to local communities.

        "Catawba Indian Nation Opens Doors to a New Community Resource Center," First Nations Development Institute, April 2022, https://www.firstnations.org/stories/from-empty-spaces-to-community-places/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jVns3iYKAkkKCr_pQ_OwExQ.r4cKlGID1skyiatNSgDNSIg.lYJD6En33dUywfQ-9Qz65rA, reported on the opening of the Catawba Nation of South
Carolina's new community resource center
, "An essential component of many communities is the educational and cultural social hub of a local library, and Catawba Indian Nation is quick to recognize the importance of this resource. With this in mind, they reached out to First Nations for support for the Catawba Community Resource Center, a new gathering place to access not only books and publications, but also Native literature about and by Native people.
        The resource center was part of a vision of the Catawba Indian Nation’s Catawba Cultural Preservation Project, which the tribe created to preserve, protect, promote, and maintain the rich culture and heritage of the Catawba Indian Nation. Through the project, Catawba Indian Nation operates the Catawba Cultural Center in the historic schoolhouse on the Catawba Indian Reservation in South Carolina. Since 1989, the center has showcased an inventory of Catawba-designed products, arts, and connections to Catawba artists, and it has provided a community clearinghouse of books and other reference materials."

        "$1.5 Million Project to Develop Native Homeownership," Lakota Times, October 21, 2021, https://www.lakotatimes.com/articles/1-5-million-project-to-develop-native-homeownership/, reported, " The South Dakota Native Homeownership Coalition received a grant award from the Department of Health and Human Services’ Administration for Native Americans (ANA) that will provide over a million dollars in funding aimed at establishing an independent statewide nonprofit organization. The ANA grant will provide $1.2 million of the total $1.5 million project budget over a three-year period."

        In one of an increasing number of cases of Indian nations purchasing traditional lands in states other than their current homes, the Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma has been collaborating with officials of Oxford Alabama to protect the traditional sites of the Muscogee federation member Arbeka tribe.
        In another instance, the Kaw or Kanza people, now of Oklahoma, have bought back some of their traditional land near Council Grove, KS. Also in Kansas, the state historical society has given back over half an acre of a Shawnee cemetery to the Shawnee, now in Oklahoma. The Osage of Oklahoma have regained 28 acres through purchase in Osage Beach Missouri, where it plans to build a hotel and casino. Meanwhile, the Methodist Church has returned to the Wyandotte nation the Church in Upper Sandusky, OH, where their ancestors learned to read (Nancy Marie Spears, "'We are still here:' Tribes reclaiming out-of-state ancestral homelands," Navajo Times, May 19, 2022).

        Shirley Sneve, "Ponca Leader Named Nebraskan of The Year," ICT, May 5, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/74e0d2d1-4838-2984-95d1-52c873493992/5.5.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " Judi gaiashkibos is the first Native American to receive the Nebraskan of the Year award. She has been the executive director of the Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs since 1995.
        She was honored at a lunch on April 19 by Lincoln’s Rotary 14 Club that has been honoring Nebraskans for 33 years. During her tenure, she has served as a highly effective cultural mediator and bridge builder between government and the private sector."

        "Dams on tribal land to get repairs: A pair of dams on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation are high-hazard, meaning lives could be lost if they failed," ICT, May 18, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/dams-on-tribal-land-to-get-repairs, reported, " A pair of dams on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota will get safety repairs with part of $29 million in funding from the federal infrastructure deal, the Department of the Interior announced Wednesday.
        Bo th the Oglala Dam and Allen Dam are high-hazard, meaning lives could be lost if they failed. They have also needed repairs for years. The Oglala Dam was built in the 1940s, while the Allen Dam was completed in 1961."
        An analysis by the Associated Press (https://apnews.com/article/technology-business-environment-san-diego-dams-d0836a1fdfc46a5f1ea6c6a4a8b8df96) found that more than 2,200 high-hazard dams were in poor or unsatisfactory condition across the country and the number was increasing. Two of the at risk high hazard dams are on the Fort Apache Reservation in Arizona and the Crow Reservation in Montana, and will also be funded as part of $150 million that will be used for repairs to six dams over the next five years.

        Mary Annette Pember "Churches Starting to Face Facts on Boarding Schools," ICT, January 13, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d51c3018-9ab7-cf25-40b0-6351988c2f65/01.13.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " Red Cloud Indian School is taking the lead among Christian-run schools in coming to terms with its assimilationist past.
        The Jesuits have given Red Cloud a $20,000 grant to help in the work, including conducting searches with ground-penetrating radar for unmarked graves, and have allocated $50,000 to hire an archivist for one year to examine the order’s boarding school history at its archives in St. Louis
."

         The National Association of Tribal Historic Preservation Officers and the Wilderness Society have published a 37-page volume to make it easier for Native nations, grassroot organizations and local leaders to change derogatory place names: A Guide to Changing Racist and Offensive Place Names in the United States. The Guide may be downloaded for free at: https://www.wilderness.org/placenames ("A guide to changing racist and offensive names on public lands," Wilderness Society, February 23, 2022, https://www.wilderness.org/placenames).

         Samuel Gilbert, "Blue corn and melons: meet the seed keepers reviving ancient, resilient crops: In north-western New Mexico, traditional Indigenous farming methods are being passed down to protect against the effects of climate crisis," The Guardian, April 19, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/apr/18/seed-keeper-indigenous-farming-acoma?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jjMqZwxpVNk-bcpwafDTGcA.rf8G_lEs5l0a70pIYWO6pXQ.llmFXixP58kyv-0aQ_480GA, reported that at Acoma Pueblo, in New Mexico, "For the past decade, Lowden, 34, has worked to restore traditional crops and farming practices in Acoma. As program director for Ancestral Lands , a non-profit that supports land stewardship in Indigenous communities, he reintroduced traditional Acoma crops into the community and created a bank of 57 arid-adapted seeds native to the region.
        His work is part of a broader movement to build food and seed sovereignty on tribal lands amidst staggering global biodiversity losses created by the modern agricultural system and growing food insecurities caused by climate crisis."

         The Navajo Nation, having reduced the size of its Council from 88 to 24 delegates in 2010, in December 2021, found its council considering expanding the council to 48 delegates, which would be more popularly representative (Hannah John, "Bill to increase Council to 48 under discussion," Navajo Times, December 16, 2021).

         In a further delegation of authority from the Navajo Nation government to it's chapters - though this time in clusters - the Naabik'iyati Committee approved sending the remaining $1.07 billion of the nation's American Rescue Act funds equally to each of the nation's 24 council delegate districts which will decide on applying the monies (Rima Krisst, "Piviting from centralized planning," Navajo Times, March 31, 2022).

        The Navajo Nation Naabik'iyati Committee approved, in late May 2022, and Navajo President Jonathan Nez, Utah Governor Spencer Cox and Interior Secretary Deb Haaland signed, the revised Navajo-Utah Water Settlement. The approximately $210 million to be received by Navajo Nation is planned to go for water infrastructure project development (Hannah John, "Long road leads to final settlement," Navajo Times, June 2, 2022).

         Hannah Grover, "Delays in Navajo-Gallup pipeline mean new wells have to be drilled," New Mexico Political Report, May 27, 2022, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/05/27/delays-in-navajo-gallup-pipeline-mean-new-wells-have-to-be-drilled/?mc_cid=c48527f3be&mc_eid=cde7993ced"Two more groundwater wells will be drilled to meet the City of Gallup’s water demands until surface water can be transported to the area from the San Juan River.
         Delays in the construction of the Navajo-Gallup Water Supply Project mean that the City of Gallup must rely on groundwater supplies from aging wells that have seen dropping water levels for longer than anticipated." The delay also has consequences for some Navajo people.

        With the Indian Health Service (IHS) having received $9 billion in federal COVID funding to fix long standing inequities, in May 2022, IHS signeed a Memorandum of Agreement with Navajo Nation and the Navajo Tribal Utility Services to undertake 10 projects on the nation to increase water access and waste disposal services for an estimated 11,684 homes on the nation ("Agreement for water and wastewater projects," Navajo Times, May 5, 2022).

        The Navajo Nation authorized $29.2 million, in May 2022, to build the nation's first veterans nursing home, in Chinle, AZ (Rima Krisst, "First nursing home for veterans gets OK," Navajo Times, May 5, 2022).

        With use declining, the Veterans Administration has proposed closing four VA clinics in New Mexico, at Gallup , Espa  ñola, Raton, and Las Vegas. This has raised concerns among the veterans, including on the Navajo Nation, who still rely on these clinics and may have difficulty traveling the much longer distance to available facilities (Donovan Quintero, "Veterans voice concerns over closure of Galup VA clinic," Navajo Times, May 5, 2022).

        The Navajo Nation Naabik'iyati Committee, in late May 2022, approved $500,000 for the assessment, removal and cleanup pf 53 dilapidated homes in Navajo, NM, as part of efforts of the Navajo Township Community Corporation to fix problems in the Navajo and Red Lake portions of the reservation (Hannah John, "Naabik'iyati approves $500K for the removal of old homes in Navajp, N.M.," Navajo Times, June 2, 2022).

         Following the mass shooting at the Robb Elementary School in Uvalde, TX, the Navajo Nation Education and Public Safety Department were working, in June 2022, to plan and train should an active shooter situation occur in a school on the nation (Hannah John, "Preparation and training aim to keep schools safe," Navajo Times, June 16, 2022).

         The Navajo Nation fire department acquired 8 new fire vehicles, in December 2016, one for each of its eight fire stations. The department said the new vehicles would shorten response time while increasing the service's coverage (Hannah John, "Officials: New fire trucks will quicken response time, increase coverage area.," Navajo Times, December 16, 2021).

         Caitlin Looby, "With protections restored, tribal council charts new path for Bears Ears," Mongabay, May 2, 2022, https://news.mongabay.com/2022/05/with-protections-restored-tribal-council-charts-new-path-for-bears-ears/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jwqt1mwdW6kqYTPH2-mPh_g.rYjbrFLyHg0O6XGA97Tpryg.lWm2gpuz9lUChvJatvRbehQ, reported that President " Biden restored the Bears Ears National Monument in southeast Utah on Oct. 7, 2021, reversing the actions of his predecessor, Donald Trump who slashed the size of the protected area by 85%. Biden called for protections across 1.36 million acres (550,400 hectares) — slightly larger than the original boundary established by Trump’s predecessor, Barack Obama.
         Now, the Bears Ears Inter-Tribal Coalition , made up of leaders from the Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, Pueblo of Zuni and Ute Indian Tribe, are working as co-managers to develop a plan that represents each tribe’s interests. The land management plan is rooted in their perspectives and place-based conservation strategies that they’ve held for centuries."

         Consistent with its efforts of many years to bring back traditional citizen participation in tribal decision making, the Southern Ute Tribe of Colorado held a virtual Open House for tribal members to discuss tribal long range transportation planning, February 17-21, 2022 ("Seeking Your Input: Tribal Long Range Transportation Plan, Virtual Open House, Thursday Feb. 17 - Monday Feb 21," Southern Ute Drum, February 11, 2022).

        The Southern Ute Tribe replaced its existing member website with a new one, in December 2022, with many additional member oriented features, including E-mail, tribal alerts, and Microsoft Office 365 (Jeremy Wade Shockley, "Introducing the 'Southern Ute Tribal Member Experience,' web platform," Southern Ute Drum, February 11, 2022).

         Tatiana Flowers, "Health disparities drive Ute Mountain Ute plan for new grocery store, workforce center: To help reduce high rates of diabetes and obesity, tribe leaders are working to raise $12 million by 2024 to help build the new community enterprise," Colorado Sun, May 31, 2022, https://coloradosun.com/2022/05/31/new-ute-grocery-store/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.j7PafB2wOzE25JeYVCNTYDw.rENydY6RlDkajAMosJSqjsQ.l5AZp5mtfL0CxWJO0kNTogQ, reported, " In Towaoc, capital of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, there are about 347 households and no place within 15 miles to shop for fresh, healthy food.
        That’s a significant barrier to improving health in a community where rates of obesity and diabetes are nearly three times higher than the rest of Colorado
.
        An ambitious plan to raise $12 million to build a grocery store could improve health and potentially resolve the persistent food desert in the southwest Colorado town. The plan also calls for creation of an adjacent workforce innovation center, programming such as televised cooking demonstrations, and training intended to direct people toward careers in food vending, marketing and e-commerce, said Bernadette Cuthair, planning director for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe."

         Isabella Grullón Paz, "Redwood Forest in California Is Returned to Native Tribes: Ownership of more than 500 acres of a forest in Mendocino County was returned to 10 sovereign tribes who will serve as guardians to 'protect and heal' the land," The New York Times, January 26, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/26/us/california-redwoods-native-american-conservation.html, reported, " Tucked away in Northern California’s Mendocino County, the 523 acres of rugged forest is studded with the ghostlike stumps of ancient redwoods harvested during a logging boom that did away with over 90 percent of the species on the West Coast. But about 200 acres are still dense with old-growth redwoods that were spared from logging."
        "The group, the Save the Redwoods League, which was able to purchase the
forest with corporate donations in 2020, said it was transferring ownership of the 523-acre property to the Intertribal Sinkyone Wilderness Council, a group of 10 Native tribes whose ancestors were “forcibly removed” from the land by European American settlers, according to a statement from the league .
        The tribes will serve as guardians of the land in partnership with the Save the Redwoods League
, which has been protecting and restoring redwood forests since 1918."

        "A Tribe’s Bitter Purge Brings an Unusual Request: Federal Intervention: After cutting 306 people from its rolls, the Nooksack tribe is moving to evict those who remain in tribal housing. The dispute has raised questions about individual rights and tribal sovereignty," The New York Times, January 2, 2022, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/02/us/nooksack-306-evictions-tribal-sovereignty.html, reported, "For decades, Mr. Javier and his family have seen the [Nooksack Indian Tribe] in northern Washington State as their people, their home. But they are now among more than 300 people who are being disowned by the tribe, on the losing end of a bitter disenrollment battle that has torn apart families and left dozens of people facing eviction in the middle of the coldest Washington winter in years."

        Lynda V. Mapes, "Timber company returns waterfront Washington property to tribe," OPB, December 23, 2021, https://www.opb.org/article/2021/12/23/timber-company-returns-waterfront-property-to-tribe/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.joLPWOPHaoEKyP5UMCKpo1w.ry89NUeR3YkK_Bu5buUGiyw.lwuQmWm7XnEy44BzLkPE90Qm reported, " Port Blakely Companies, a family-owned company with timber operations in the U.S. and New Zealand, has returned 2 miles of waterfront and 125 acres of tidelands on Little Skookum Inlet in Mason County to the Squaxin Island Tribe, at no cost.
        The return of the tideland property is part of a growing 'Land Back' movement, in which landowners are returning property lost by tribes when white settlers arrived and began colonizing the landscapes where Indigenous people had lived and thrived for thousands of years."

         The Chief Seattle Club, which provides urban Indian services, opened 80 housing units for Native WA earning less than 50% of the area median income people at Pioneer Square in Seattle,, on January 24, 2022 ( Seattle club opens 80 units of housing," Navajo Times, January 27, 2022).

        Drug addiction continues to be a serious problem across the United States, and especially so on Indian nations. Hallie Golden, "The Indigenous tribe fighting back against the addiction epidemic: The Lummi Nation, on the US west coast, has faced addiction issues for decades. Now they are utilizing a combination of culturally-based healing and western approaches," The Guardian, March 30, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/mar/30/lummi-nation-fights-addiction-epidemic-care-program?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jVns3iYKAkkKCr_pQ_OwExQ.r4cKlGID1skyiatNSgDNSIg.lw5p-JLlRZU-YzmrqAI84yg, reported, " The Lummi Nation , a community of more than 5,500 people located on a small slice of land on the US west coast extending into the Salish Sea, has faced addiction issues on the reservation for decades. It has affected everything from crime to housing, families and foster care. And for over half a century, tribal leaders have been working to rid the reservation of drug abuse." The situation, long bad, has become worse in recent years from the prevalence of highly addictive methamphetamine and, most recently, lethal pure fentanyl. The tribe has instituted a number of drug prevention programs, including canoe clubs focusing on a combination of physical and cultural training. For those addicted, "the Lummi Nation uses a combination of culturally based healing and western-based substance abuse treatment approaches, all centered on love and compassion." The community has about 55,000 residents. In February 2020, the nation's drug treatment program, Car had 342 active clients, but 39 of those had not participated for 14 days, an indication that they may have relapsed.

        Lakota People's Law Project reported in an E-mail, April 18, 2022, "As we approach November, Lakota Law’s organizers in South Dakota are prepared to move mountains to get out the Native vote and make sure Lakota Country maximizes its impact this critical election season. South Dakota’s long history of failing to comply with the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) means registration among its 76,000 Native Americans is abysmally low. That’s why we’ll register Native voters across all nine tribal nations and each major city in the state and assist with getting every vote counted."

        Carina Dominguez, "Diné Woman Confirmed as First Native Federal Judge In California," ICT, May 26, 2022, https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pdredge/pdr-edge-research-022117.html, reported, " Justice Sunshine Suzanne Sykes is only the seventh Indigenous federal judge ever seated
The first Native federal judge in California’s history
was confirmed by the U.S. Senate Wednesday, becoming only the seventh Indigenous federal judge ever named to the bench," and the first Navajo federal judge, appointed to the Central District of California.

         Seven Native Americans were running for the North Dakota Legislature, in June 2022, among others: Richard Marcellais, Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, running for his fifth term as a state Senator, Jayme Davis, Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, Democratic nominee for Assembly District 09a, Colette Brown, Spirit Lake Sioux Tribe, Democrat, running for Assembly District 15; Lisa Finley-Deville, Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara, was running as the Democratic candidate for Assembly District 4a (Paula Denetclaw, "Seven Dems seek election to North Dakota assembly: Updated: Indigenous candidates are running for Senate and House in the Peace Garden State. #NativeVote22," ICT, June 14, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/seven-dems-seek-election-to-north-dakota-assembly; and "Lisa Finley-DeVille," Ballotpedia, Mid-June 2022, https://ballotpedia.org/Lisa_Finley-DeVille).
        Pauly Denetclaw, "Nevada primary has Indigenous congressional candidate:
Updated: Both Indigenous candidates in Nevada advance to the general election. Mercedes Krause is the democratic nominee for the 2nd congressional district and Shea Backus is one step closer to state assembly seat 37. #NativeVote22," ICT, June 15, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/nevada-primary-has-indigenous-congressional-candidate. Krause is Oglala Lakota, Backus is Cherokee.
        Yup'ik candidate advances to Alaska's US House election: The special election, set for Aug. 16, will feature ranked voting. The winner will serve the rest of Don Young’s term. #NativeVote22," ICT, June 18, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/yupik-candidate-advances-to-alaskas-us-house-election, reported, " Mary Peltola, a former state lawmaker and one of the few Democrats in a massive field of candidates seeking Alaska's only U.S. House seat, has advanced to an August special election, where she will face former Gov. Sarah Palin, Republican Nick Begich and independent Al Gross .
        (Not in chart below) Davina Smith, Navajo, was running for Utah’s 69th House district seat (Krista Allen, "‘Tell it like it is’: First Diné woman running for Utah House seat," Navajo Times, May 5, 2022, https://navajotimes.com/rezpolitics/election-2022/tell-it-like-it-is-first-dine-woman-running-for-utah-house-seat/).

        The number of Native Americans running for public office has been increasing over several years. Indian Country Today has compiled a list of Indigenous Candidates for office in the U.S. in 2022, at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1akiFlDsYOy0etr_IKMjv7eNfjfwvAlGDuN4AqUjAKT8/edit#gid=0:

First

Last

State

Office

District

Party

Tribal affiliation

Gender*

Incumbent running for reelection?

Link to campaign website

Laurel

Foster

Alaska

US House

1

I

Cupik

F

Emil

Notti

Alaska

US House

1

D

Athabascan

M

Mary

Satler Peltola

Alaska

US House

1

D

Yup'ik Eskimo

F

Tara

McLean Sweeney

Alaska

US House

1

R

Inupiaq

F

Edgar

Blackford

Alaska

US Senate

Statewide

D

Inupiaq

M

No

Neal

Foster

Alaska

State House

39

D

Inupiaq

M

https://akhouse.org/rep_foster/

Tiffany

Zulkosky

Alaska

State House

38

D

Yup'ik

F

https://akhouse.org/Tiffany-Zulkosky/

Bryce

Edgmon

Alaska

State House

37

Independent

Yup'ik

M

Josiah

Patkotak

Alaska

State House

40

Independent

Inupiaq

M

Lyman

Hoffman

Alaska

State Senate

S

D

Yup’ik

M

Sally Ann

Gonzales

Arizona

State Senate

3

D

Pascua Yaqui

F

YES

https://www.azleg.gov/senate-member/?legislature=55&session=123&legislator=1957

Victoria

Steele

Arizona

Justice of the Peace

D

Seneca

F

NO

https://victoriasteeleforjustice.com/what-is-a-jp/

Jasmine

Blackwater-Nygren

Arizona

State House

7

D

Diné

F

YES

https://www.azleg.gov/house-member/?legislature=55&session=123&legislator=2077

Jennifer

Jermaine

Arizona

State House

18

D

White Earth Ojibwe

F

YES

https://www.jermaine4house.com/

Myron

Tsosie

Arizona

State House

7

D

Diné

M

YES

https://www.azleg.gov/house-member/?legislature=54&session=122&legislator=1897

Mark

Porter

California

State House

33

R

Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe

M

No

https://www.markporter2022.com/

Baltazar

Fedalizo

California

US House

37

James

Ramos

California

State House/ California State Assembly

4

D

Serrano/Cahuilla

M

YES

https://www.jamesramos.org/

Patrick

Branco

Hawaii

State House

50

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

https://patrickpihanabranco.com

Ty J.K.

Cullen

Hawaii

State House

39

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

Lynn Pualani

DeCoite

Hawaii

State Senate

7

D

Native Hawai'ian

F

Daniel

Holt

Hawaii

State House

29

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

Dru Mamo

Kanuha

Hawaii

State Senate

3

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

Jarrett K.

Keohokalole

Hawaii

State Senate

24

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

Michelle

Kidani

Hawaii

State Senate

18

D

Native Hawai'ian

F

James

Tokioka

Hawaii

State House

15

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

Justin

Woodson

Hawaii

State House

9

D

Native Hawai'ian

M

Kai

Kahele

Hawaii

Governor

2

D

Native Hawaiian

M

YES

Sharice

Davids

Kansas

US House

3

D

Ho-Chunk

F

YES

https://www.shariceforcongress.com/home

Ponka-We

Victors

Kansas

State House

103

D

Ponca Nation of Oklahoma and Tohono O'odham

F

YES

Christina

Haswood

Kansas

State House

10

D

Navajo

F

YES

Rena

Newell

Maine

State House, non-voting tribal member, representing the Passamaquoddy Tribe

Passamaquoddy Tribe

F

Adam

Hollier

Michigan

U.S. House

13

D

Muscogee

M

Ernest

Joseph Oppegaard-Peltier (Joey)

Minnesota

US House

7

People's party

Anishinaabe

M

https://www.ejop3.com/about

Alicia

Kozlowski

Minnesota

State House

8B

D

Ojibwe

F

Steve

Green

Minnesota

State House

2B

R

White Earth Nation

M

Jamie

Becker-Finn

Minnesota

State House

42B

D

Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe descent

F

YES

https://becker-finn.org/

Heather

Keeler

Minnesota

State House

4A

D

Yankton Sioux and Eastern Shoshone

F

NO

https://www.facebook.com/pg/Heather4House/about/?ref=page_internal

Mary

Kunesh-Podein

Minnesota

State Senate

41

D

Standing Rock Sioux

F

NO

http://www.kunesh-podein.com/

Charles

Walking Child

Montana

US House

2

R

Anishinaabe

M

No

Skylar

Williams

Montana

US House

2

D

Chippewa Cree Tribe of Rocky Boy Montana

M

No

Barbara

Bessette

Montana

State House

24

D

Chippewa Cree

F

YES

Donavon

Hawk

Montana

State House

76

D

Crow

M

Rhonda

Knudsen

Montana

State House

34

R

Turtle Mountain Chippewa

F

Marvin

Weatherwax

Montana

State House

15

D

Blackfeet

M

YES

Tyson

Running Wolf

Montana

State House

16

D

Blackfeet

M

YES

Frank

Smith

Montana

State House

31

D

Assiniboine Sioux

M

NO

Sharon

Stewart-Peregoy

Montana

State House

42

D

Crow

F

YES

Rynalea

Whiteman-Pena

Montana

State House

41

D

Northern Cheyenne

F

NO

Jonathan

Windy Boy

Montana

State House

32

D

Chippewa Cree

M

YES

Elizabeth Mercedes

Krause

Nevada

US House

2

D

Oglala Lakota

F

Shea

Brackus

Nevada

State House

37

D

Cherokee Nation

F

Patricia

Roybal Caballero

New Mexico

State House

13

D

Piro Manso Tiwa

F

YES

Anthony

Allison

New Mexico

State House

4

D

Navajo Nation

M

YES

https://www.anthony4nm.com/

Christina

Aspaas

New Mexico

State House

4

D

Navajo Nation

F

NO

Doreen Wonda

Johnson

New Mexico

State House

5

D

Navajo Nation

F

YES

Derrick

Lente

New Mexico

State House

65

D

Sandia & Isleta Pueblo

M

YES

https://www.derrickjlente.com/

Kevin

Mitchell

New Mexico

State House

5

D

Navajo Nation

M

NO

Marvin Anthony

Trujillo

New Mexico

State House

69

D

Pueblo of Laguna

M

No

Yvette

Herrell

New Mexico

US House

2

R

Cherokee Nation

F

YES

Georgene

Louis

New Mexico

State House

26

D

Acoma Pueblo

F

Charles

Graham

North Carolina

US House

7

D

Lumbee

M

NO

https://votecharlesgraham.com/about-charles/

Crystal

Cavalier

North Carolina

US House

4

D

Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation

F

NO

Thomasina

Mandan

North Dakota

State House

04a

D

Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara

F

YES

Ruth

Buffalo

North Dakota

State House

27

D

Hidatsa/Mandan and Chiricahua Apache

F

https://www.ruth4nd.com/about.html

Richard

Marcellais

North Dakota

State Senate

9

D

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa

M

Lisa

DeVille

North Dakota

State House

04a

D

Mandan, Arikara,Hidatsa

F

Collette

Brown

North Dakota

State Senate

15

D

Spirit Lake Sioux Tribe

F

Lillian

Jones

North Dakota

State House

41

D

Mandan, Arikara,Hidatsa

F

Jayme

Davis

North Dakota

State House

9a

D

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa

F

Tom

Cole

Oklahoma

US House

4

R

Chickasaw

M

YES

http://www.tomcoleforcongress.com/

Markwayne

Mullin

Oklahoma

US Senate

Statewide

R

Cherokee Nation

M

YES

TW

Shannon

Oklahoma

US Senate

Statewide

R

Chickasaw Nation

M

Wes

Nofire

Oklahoma

US House

2

R

Cherokee Nation

M

No

https://www.wesnofire.com/

Guy

Barker

Oklahoma

US House

2

R

Osage & Quapaw

M

No

https://barkerforcongress.com/meet-guy-barker-for-congress/

Brad

Boles

Oklahoma

State House

51

R

Cherokee Nation

M

Hurchel (Trey)

Caldwell

Oklahoma

State House

63

R

Choctaw

M

Scott

Fetgatter

Oklahoma

State House

16

R

Choctaw

M

Avery

Frix

Oklahoma

State House

13

R

Choctaw

M

Ken

Luttrell

Oklahoma

State House

37

R

Cherokee Nation

M

Mark

McBride

Oklahoma

State House

53

R

Citizen Potawatomi

M

Mike

Osburn

Oklahoma

State House

81

R

Cherokee Nation

M

John

Pfieffer

Oklahoma

State House

38

R

Cherokee Nation

M

Ajay

Pittman

Oklahoma

State House

99

D

Seminole

F

Mark

Vancuren

Oklahoma

State House

74

R

Cherokee Nation

M

Dustin

Roberts

Oklahoma

State House

21

R

Choctaw

M

David

Hardin

Oklahoma

State House

86

R

Cherokee Nation

M

Kevin

Stitt

Oklahoma

Governor

R

Cherokee Nation

M

yes

Tawna

Sanchez

Oregon

State House

43

D

Shoshone-Bannock, Ute & Carrizo

F

Charles

Walking Child

South Dakota

US House

2

R

Anishinaabe

M

No

https://www.facebook.com/walkingchildforcongress

Shawn

Bordeaux

South Dakota

State House

26A

D

Rosebud Sioux

M

Red Dawn

Foster

South Dakota

State Senate

27

D

Oglala Lakota

F

Troy

Heinert

South Dakota

State Senate

26

D

Rosebud Sioux

M

Peri

Pourier

South Dakota

State House

27

D

Oglala Lakota

F

Tamara

St. John

South Dakota

State House

1

R

Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate

F

Bruce

Whalen

South Dakota

U.S. Senate

Statewide

R

Oglala Lakota

M

https://whalenforussenate.com

Bryan

Terry

Tennessee

State House

48

R

Choctaw

M

https://www.bryanterry4tn.com/

Angela

Davis

Utah

State House

26

D

Fort Peck Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes

F

YES

Davina

Smith

Utah

State House

69

D

Diné

F

https://www.davinaforut.com

Debra

Lekanoff

Washington

State House

40

D

Tlingit/Aleut

F

Lynnette

Grey Bull

Wyoming

US House

Statewide

D

Northern Arapaho & Hunkpapa Lakota

F

No

https://www.greybullforcongress.com/

Andi

Clifford

Wyoming

State House

33

D

Northern Arapaho

F

YES

https://www.facebook.com/pg/cliffordfor33/about/?ref=page_internal

Return to top

Economic Developments

         The 2019 Oklahoma Native Impact Report (http://www.oknativeimpact.com) produced by Dr. Kyle Dean, Director of the Center for Native American and Urban Studies, Oklahoma City University reported that the total economic impact of Indian nations in Oklahoma, in 2019, was $15.6 billion. In addition to direct contributions, the state's tribes generated billions, annually, in production by companies supporting nations’ business operations, in addition to direct tribal contributions. That year, the Oklahoma tribes supported 113,442 jobs in the state, providing $5.4 billion in wages and benefits to Oklahoma workers, while direct tribal employment exceeded 54,000 jobs, and tribal investment spurred job growth in a side variety of industries. Oklahoma Indian nations investment in community included:
        Over $1.8 billion in exclusivity fees for public education and mental health services
        $84 million in additional support to schools, municipalities and other community initiatives
        $232 million paid in Medicaid expenditures at tribal health care facilities
        Saved Oklahoma $86 Million by requiring no state matching Medicaid funds
Total Economic Impacts From Oklahoma Tribes In 2019

Employment

Payroll

Value-Added

Output

Direct Effect

54,201

$2,460,481,382

$4,163,055,614

$8,282,415,423

Multiplier Effect

59,240

$2,904,770,725

$4,359,608,918

$7,284,240,437

Total Effect

113,442

$5,365,252,106

$8,522,664,532

$15,566,655,861

Chart, line chart

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Chart, line chart

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        "Indian Land Capital Company reports record investment in 2021: Investors are expressing confidence in the future of Indian Country," Indian Land Capital Company, January 20, 2022, https://app.getresponse.com/view.html?x=a62b&m=BGpGWR&mc=Ic&s=svSFHd&u=zKDo6&z=Ehe5GwA&, stated, " The Indian Land Capital Company (ILCC) today reported significant growth in in its lending pool for Tribal economic development and land acquisition thanks to increased investment from a variety of organizations. ILCC raised more than $11.3 million in 2021, capital that is used to fund important projects in Native communities.
        'This is significant news for Indian Country,' said Rjay Brunkow, Chief Executive Officer of ILCC and an enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. '100 percent of the money – all $11.3 million of it – will directly support projects in Tribal communities in the coming months. The money goes into ILCC’s lending pool to be distributed in the form of loans to Native Nations with very attractive terms they can’t get anywhere else.
         The Indian Land Capital Company is a Native-owned, Certified Native Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) providing alternative loan options to Native Nations for tribal land acquisition projects. Formed in 2005, ILCC is owned by the nonprofit Indian Land Tenure Foundation. As a Native-owned and operated business, ILCC understands the unique needs of Native Nations and creates customized, flexible loan packages that suit the specific needs of the tribe and the unique circumstances of the purchase.
        'There are so many financially sound projects ready to go in Indian Country. The challenge has always been acquiring enough capital to lend, and we have made significant strides in that area this year,' Brunkow said. 'The need is there and now we are able to meet more of the demand for financing.
        A variety of organizations and institutions made major investments in ILCC in 2021, including:
Associated Bank
U.S. Dept. of Treasury Community Development Financial Institution
CNote Group
Opportunity Finance Network
Oweesta
Sunrise Bank
Tamalpais Fund
        'Investing in ILCC gives organizations a unique opportunity to make a real difference in the quality of life for an entire community,” Brunkow explained. “These funds will be invested in the construction of things like daycare facilities, clinics and cultural centers. We will be able to provide loans for economic development projects such as tribally owned convenience stores as well as land acquisition for future development.'
        Although the confidence investors have shown in the future of Native communities and the work of ILCC is highly encouraging, the organization continues to aggressively pursue additional funding from a variety of sources. 'This past year represents a big step forward in our efforts to raise as much capital as we possibly can on an annual basis, but there is a lot of work still to be done,' Brunkow said. 'Capital is the most scarce resource in Indian Country and ILCC is fully committed to finding new and innovative ways to inject more capital into our communities.'
        Contact
        For press inquiries or more information on Indian Land Capital Company please contact Rjay Brunkow. (email: rjay@ilcc.net or call 612-999-5913)."

         A fast growing area of Indian Country economic development is green energy, in which numerous tribes are engaged. Of the more than 50 million acres of lands controlled by Native nations in the U.S., an estimated 6.5 percent is well-suited for development of renewable energy. On the Navajo Nation, as of 2019, the Kayenta solar farms spanning 365 acres produced 55 megawatts of power sufficient to power 36,000 homes, and the nation is in the process of further solar development. Among others undertaking solar development are the Northern Cheyenne Tribe in eastern Montana, the Spokane Tribe in Washington and the Seminole Tribe of Florida. In South Dakota, a consortium of Lakota nations are engaged in developing large wind farm aimed a producing enough electricity to power 1.5 million homes. In Alaska, Native villages and corporations have been investing in hydropower, without building dams harmful to salmon and the general environment. The rise of Native green energy has been boosted by grants in excess of $9 million announced by the Biden administration. In one instance, Navajo nation received $1.2 million to support further solar and battery storage development (Ted McDermott, "Renewable Energy: Jobs of the future: Tribes work to harness energy from sun, wind and water as demand for green energy grows," , April 6, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/renewable-energy-jobs-of-the-future, This story is part of a collaborative series, “At the Crossroads," https://indiancountrytoday.com/tag/at-the-crossroads, from the Institute for Nonprofit News, Indian Country Today, InvestigateWest, and eight other news partners, examining the state of the economy in Indian Country. This reporting was made possible with support from the Walton Family Foundation).

         Under an agreement among the Navajo Nation, the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (AUT) and the Salt River Project, signed in January 2022, the AUT Kayenta One Solar Facility will continue operating through 2038, and a new 200-megawatt, "Cameron Solar," facility will be built, to be operational in 2023 (Kayenta, Cameron solar facilities OKed," Navajo Times, January 27, 2022).

         To help guide Navajo Nation economic development planning, the Navajo Nation's first economist, hired in November 2021, undertook a survey indicating that 53% of Navajo Nation hardship payments to members was spent off reservation. Preliminary results of the survey indicated that Hardship spending on the Nation with its dearth of available goods and services was first for paying bills, personal care and services, setting aside for savings, automotive, food and dining (Rima Krisst, "Survey shows more than half of Hardship spent off-rez," Navajo Times, February 3, 2022).

         Andy Lyman, "NM signs intergovernmental cannabis agreements with two pueblos," New Mexico Political Report, March 25, 2022, https://nmpoliticalreport.com/2022/03/25/nm-signs-intergovernmental-cannabis-agreements-with-two-pueblos/?mc_cid=896fe7f64f&mc_eid=cde7993ced, reported, " Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham announced on Friday “historic” intergovernmental agreements with two pueblos that will allow the sovereign nations to take part in the state’s newly established recreational-use cannabis industry.
        According to the governor’s office announcement , leaders of the Picuris and Pojoaque pueblos each signed an agreement with the state that will “support the pueblos taking part in the recreational cannabis industry, driving economic development and setting guidelines for the safe production and sale of cannabis while preventing federal enforcement on their tribal lands.”
        Stewart Huntington, "Tribe Takes the Lead in Marijuana Industry," ICT, March 24, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d8e40cbf-8791-0f7e-f007-02afd4a67178/03.24.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported that the Flandreau Santee Tribe, , " The first Native nation to legalize marijuana continues to break new ground in the evolving — and expanding — cannabis industry by opening South Dakota’s first medical marijuana dispensary and laying plans to significantly expand its cultivation and processing operations."         
        "How the Sicangu Lakota Community Are Restoring Food Sovereignty and Health of the Prairie Rangeland," Cultural Survival, April 30, 2022, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/how-sicangu-lakota-community-are-restoring-food-sovereignty-and-health-prairie-rangeland, reported, " The Sicangu Lakota Oyate, a.k.a. The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST), are striding towards the resurgence of their food sovereignty by re-allocating resources from intensive agricultural practices to traditional regenerative systems, with economic opportunities for tribal members to grow nutrient-dense foods locally. Today, even though the Sicangu land base contains over 50,000 acres of farmland and over 500,000 acres of rangeland, 57% of farms are subsidized to raise commodity crops and don’t contribute to feeding the local population; most acreage is leased to non-Indigenous farmers or ranchers utilizing intensive agricultural practices that damage the environment, harm biodiversity, contribute to species decline, global warming, and the inhumane treatment of animals. To counter this, Sicangu members have created a 7-generation strategic framework to develop sustainable local systems in areas such as food, water, education, land, technology, and healthcare. Implementation is currently in progress through three sister organizations: Rosebud Economic Development Corporation (REDCO); the Sicangu Community Development Corporation; and Tatanka Funds, an emerging native Community Development Financial Institutions Fund.
         REDCO is also developing a 27,000 acre regenerative buffalo sanctuary (with support from the World Wildlife Fund) to reconnect the Sicangu Peoples’ spiritual identity with the buffalo while rejuvenating the health of the Prairie ecosystems; just two years after its launch, the Wolakota Buffalo Range is home to the largest Native-managed buffalo herd in the world. For the Sicangu people, food insecurity coincides with the destruction of the buffalo economy. The colonial process intentionally destroyed traditional foodways to cultivate dependence, and the Sicangu people still face an estimated 83% unemployment rate, with many tribal members dependent on federal food aid programs such as SNAP/EBT, WIC or Commodity Supplemental Food Program for survival. The traditional Lakota organic diet was diverse and packed with nutrients, but today tribal members suffer from food apartheid and higher rates of diet-related diseases; the Rosebud reservation has only three grocery stores serving a population over 20,000. Given these challenges, the 7-generation framework aims to overhaul the current food system, while also reclaiming culture and language. REDCO currently operates a 400 acre organic farm and is in the process of transitioning 1,441 acres of center-pivot irrigated farmland to certified organic farmland, which will be completed later this year. Longer-term goals include converting over 10,000 acres of Sicangu Lakota farmland to organic production, and developing Rosebud-branded products (like grass-fed, hormone-free, humanely harvested meat) with community-led initiatives and local individual producers.
         Quotes
        'What makes this project different from other ranching enterprises is that it's not strictly focused on the economic outcome. We want to help the Lakota reconnect with the buffalo and help restore that relationship. We want to make it real and tangible again.'
        'For us, regenerative agriculture is something Native people have always been practicing. It includes culture, caring for the land, the water, the animals and plant life. It includes being in harmony with nature, and mimicking the natural processes as much as we can. We don’t use chemicals.'
— Matthew Wilson, Food Sovereignty Director of Sicangu Community Development Corporation
        '[The buffalo range] will help promote higher species diversity in the plant community, and hopefully bring back some more of the native plants in several of the pastures that have been overgrazed and dominated by less desirable invasive species. We hope to move away from that sort of plant community, and back to a diverse, native plant community that will impact the whole ecosystem, as far as insects and other wildlife too.'
        — Jimmy Doyle, Range Manager, Wolakota Buffalo Range
         Media Contact
        Aaron Epps, Sicangu Community Development Corporation, aaron.epps@sicangucorp.com, https://sicangucdc.org."

        Liz Gray and Morgan Taylor, "‘Reservation worthy’ cattle operation expands tribal enterprise: Muskogee (Creek) Nation’s cattle ranch and meat-processing plant generate jobs, food security," ICT, April 6, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/reservation-worthy-cattle-operation-expands-tribal-enterprise, This story is part of a collaborative series, “At the Crossroads," reported, " The Muscogee (Creek) Nation has expanded its agriculture enterprises from a small farm to nearly 6,000 acres after the purchase of ranchlands in 2021 near Okmulgee, Oklahoma. It is the largest known land acquisition in the tribe's history.
        ... Looped Square Meat Co. [is] the tribe’s latest economic venture that draws its name from a symbol representing the balance of nature. The $15 million meat-processing facility includes a retail space that sells what have been branded as “reservation worthy” meats and other foods."

        Shannon Shaw Duty, "Working Together: Tribal partnerships bring regional jobs: Osage Nation joins with city, county for economic development, ICT, April 13, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/working-together-tribal-partnerships-bring-regional-jobs, This story is part of a collaborative series, “At the Crossroads," https://indiancountrytoday.com/tag/at-the-crossroads, from the Institute for Nonprofit News, Indian Country Today , Osage News and eight other news partners, examining the state of the economy in Indian Country. This reporting was made possible with support from the Walton Family Foundation, reporting on collaboration among Osage Principal Chief Geoffrey Standing Bear, Osage County Commissioner Randall Jones and Pawhuska City Manager Jerry Eubanks, "Plans are underway for the Osage to open new casinos and hotels in Bartlesville and Pawhuska with city utilities, and the tribe is looking to build a sports complex that could host tournaments and other events, drawing visitors to local restaurants, lodging, shopping and other attractions.
         Additional projects include expansion of Broadband internet, community healthcare, senior housing, water projects and bridge and road work."

        Stewart Huntington, "Tribe Plans Las Vegas Grand Opening For Palms Casino," ICT, April 7, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d6f728bc-ba05-4ab2-16f9-82fda1299ebd/4.7.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, "The Indian gaming industry inched a step closer to an historic milestone Tuesday when the Palms Casino Resort announced plans to reopen under tribal ownership [April 27, 2022].
         The San Manuel Band of Mission Indians bought the Palms last year for $650 million. The nearly 1,400-room complex has been closed since Nevada shuttered all resorts for 78 days in March 2020 due to the pandemic." This will be the first time an Indian nation has operated a gaming facility on the strip in Las Vegas, NV.
         Joe Boomgaard, "Michigan Gov. Whitmer Denies Little River Band Of Ottawa Indians’ Proposed Off-Reservation Casino, Citing Disappointment With Doi, Tribal Business News, June 15, 2022, https://tribalbusinessnews.com/sections/gaming/13933-michigan-gov-whitmer-denies-little-river-band-of-ottawa-indians-proposed-off-reservation-casino-citing-disappointment-with-doi, reported, " The Little River Band of Ottawa Indians is 'absolutely devastated' after Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer said she was unable to approve the tribe’s proposed $180 million off-reservation casino project in Fruitport Township."

        Allison Herrera, "Land and Basketball: 'We're Bringing the Fire,'" ICT, April 7, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d6f728bc-ba05-4ab2-16f9-82fda1299ebd/4.7.22_The_Weekly.pdf, By Indian Country Today The WEEKLY KOSU Radio April 7, 2022, reported, "The Citizen Potawatomi Nation's [has acquired] new minor league basketball team, which kicked off its inaugural season March 4 in The Basketball League after being formally unveiled in September."
        "The Potawatomi Fire is the first tribally owned sports team in Oklahoma, and one of only a handful of professional teams owned by tribal nations in the U.S. The Mohegan Tribe in Connecticut owns both the Connecticut Sun in the Women’s National Basketball Association and the New England Black Wolves in the National Lacrosse League."
        Kalle Benallie, "Tribes to receive $1.7 billion water settlement: Interior Secretary Deb Haaland visited Arizona amid the announcement that 16 tribal water settlements will receive payments," ICT, rFebuary 23, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/tribes-to-receive-1-7-billion-water-settlement, reported, "On Tuesday, at the Arizona Department of Water Resources building, she [Interior Secretary Deb Haaland] announced the Interior’s plan for tribes to receive $1.7 billion in Indian water rights claims."
        "The money is for 'outstanding federal payments necessary to complete their terms,' according to an Interior press release, and comes from President Joe Biden’s infrastructure law that invests more than $13 billion directly in tribal communities." About $2.5 billion will be applied to implement the Indian Water Rights Settlement Completion Fund, which with monies from the Reclamation Water Settlement Fund is estimated to provide $120 million in mandatory funding annually from 2020 to 2029. Receiving the payments are Aamodt Litigation Settlement nations: Pueblos of San Ildefonso, Nambe, Pojoaque, and Tesuque, Blackfeet Nation, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Crow Nation, Gila River Indian Community, Navajo-Utah Water Rights Settlement and Navajo-Gallup Water Supply Project, San Carlos Apache Nation, Tohono O’odham Nation and the White Mountain Apache Tribe.

        Holdzilei Hiking Strong, run by Dine entrepreneurs won an REI grant, in January 2022, to launch a new outdoor adventure company (Krista Allen, "Holdzilei, a new business," Navajo Times, January 20, 2022).

         Kalle Benallie, "Yurok Tribe Brewery Takes On MLB," ICT, March 31, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/978eaec9-96a1-1b9c-35c6-5f7484b7a8bd/03.31.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " The San Francisco Giants’ stadium, Oracle Park, will now sell three craft beers from a brewery owned by the Yurok Tribe. It’s the first partnership of its kind with a Major League Baseball franchise."

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Education and Culture

        Contact: Dina Horwedel, Director of Public Education, American Indian College Fund, 303-426-8900, dhorwedel@collegefund.org, " American Indian College Fund Launches $2.25 Million Wounspekiya Unspewicakiyapi Native Teacher Education Program: Tribal college program will support Native teacher recruitment, development, and retention for grades K-12," American Indian College Fund, via E-mail, January 4, 2022, reported, "Teachers are some of children’s first role models. However, according to the U.S. Department of Education, f ewer than one percent of all people in the teaching profession in the United States are Native American, which is compounded by a lack of Native role model teachers serving in K-12 classrooms in rural areas and reservation-based schools. The American Indian College Fund is launching a two-and-a-half-year Native teacher education program at tribal colleges and universities serving Native communities across the country to support teacher recruitment, development, and retention. Funding for the program is provided by Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies.
         The program, called Wounspekiya Unspewicakiyapi, or teaching teachers, will increase the number of Native teachers working in Native communities while ensuring the continuity and sustainability of Indigenous knowledge and lifeways in Native students. Program graduates will go on to serve not just as teachers, but also as community advocates, role models, and culture-keepers in their communities, while prioritizing a Native world view with their students.
        The reason for the Native teacher shortage is systemic. A range of barriers prevent Native students from pursuing a teaching career. They include poor perceptions of the value of teaching as a career; accessibility to and awareness of postsecondary education pathways; a need for financial assistance, college preparation, and career guidance support; and TCUs’ limited capacity to develop the next generation of teachers (including a lack of student teaching and college transfer opportunities to four-year degree and teaching certificate programs). Yet the development of a strong generation of Native teachers is what is needed to develop the talents and futures of Native children.
        The Wounspekiya Unspewicakiyapi project is designed to support students interested in education careers from the recruitment phase to their first and second academic years, through teacher education programs to state certification and employment. The College Fund will work with TCUs through a co-visioning process to examine obstacles to completing teacher education programs and to provide support to build upon and amplify successful practices identified by TCUs to increase student success.
        Five pre-selected TCUs with existing teacher education programs will participate in the Wounspekiya Unspewicakiyapi project in the first program year. Emerging teacher education programs at other tribal colleges and universities will receive small innovation grants in the second program year, with funding based on the established capacity of teacher education programs. Established teacher education programs will be given funding priority with small grants awarded to support new programs. TCUs will be chosen based on how their programs support recruitment, retention, completion, and certification upon graduation of Native students in TCU teacher education programs.
        Cheryl Crazy Bull, President and CEO of the College Fund, said, “As parents and educators, we know teachers not only impact skills, knowledge, and abilities of students, they also complement the role of the family as caretakers and role models. The College Fund welcomes this opportunity to partner with our TCUs and Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies to increase the number of Native teachers of our children and youth.”

        Bart Pfankuch, "Tribal College Part Of NASA Plan," ICT, February 17, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/b86ccf4a-078f-d39d-29d8-eac1949e5e85/02.17.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " Sinte Gleska University, a tribal college in Mission, South Dakota, may soon enter into a partnership with NASA that would result in new science education programs, more affordable housing for state reservations and the development of 3D housing that could someday be used on the moon or Mars.
        The National Aeronautic and Space Administration has already committed to the partnership and allocated an investment of roughly $250,000 to the project that has a working title of “Enhancing Research in Additive Manufacturing Processes for Lunar Application and Planetary Use in Tribal Housing Development.”

         Tohono O'odham Community College has increased its enrollment by 96% as a result of switching all its classes on-line and making tuition free during the pandemic and continuing those practices by student demand. As of January 2024, enrolment had expanded from eight Native nations being represented to 55 (Maris Agha, Room for everyone: Tribal college expands its reach ," Christian Science Monitor Weekly, January 24, 2022).

         Chris Aadland, "California universities, tribe make tuition free for many Indigenous students: The Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria play a key role. Starting this fall, tribal citizens in California can attend one of the state system campuses tuition-free," ICT, April 29, 2022, https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/california-universities-tribe-make-tuition-free-for-many-indigenous-students, reported that, " Native students who are citizens of a federally or unrecognized tribe and California residents will be able to attend any of the eight campuses of the University of California system – one of the dozens university systems in the country that has benefited from expropriated Indigenous lands – after announcements from the system and the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria."
        Since legally, the University of California system could only provide free tuition to members of federally recognized tribes, and there are around 80 unrecognized tribes in the state, many seeking federal recognition, "So the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria - which also in 2020 donated $15 million to the UCLA School of Law to be used for scholarships for Indigenous law students or students interested in practicing Native American law, in addition to creating an endowment for law professors specializing in Indigenous law - stepped in to cover tuition costs for students who are citizens of unrecognized tribes."

        Kalle Benallie, "‘We Don’t Want to Lose the Language,'" ICT, March 24, 2022, https://mcusercontent.com/ee83519a17075b9d5a2c44042/files/d8e40cbf-8791-0f7e-f007-02afd4a67178/03.24.22_The_Weekly.pdf, reported, " Jemez Pueblo in New Mexico celebrated Thursday the groundbreaking of their Walatowa Early Childhood Learning Center. The Pueblo of Jemez is the only Pueblo that speaks the Jemez (Towa) Language."
        “'The center is the Pueblo’s top priority infrastructure project, as there is a great need in our community to provide a safe facility for early childhood education and language learning,' Jemez Pueblo Gov. Raymond Loretto said in a press release.'"

         The Taos Institute has been putting on Education as Relating events with an Indigenous perspective.
        "Building on the excitement generated at the Taos Institute's Education as Relating virtual conference in November 2021, we are pleased to invite you to continue the conversation through a series of free online events.
All are welcome, even if you did not attend the conference.
        May 6, 2022, 10:00 - 11:30 am EST (New York time)
        This second interactive online gathering features the topic:
                 DEIJ, Youth Voice and Indigenous Relational Practices in Education
        Watch any or all of the following recordings before May 6 and join in the conversation with the presenters about Relational Practices in Education.
         Feature Presentation Recordings:
         Plenary 3: Listening to Youth Voices – Imagining the Future, Mary Hoskins, Ella Gregory, Daisy Guzman, Ella Lewis, Connor Mustin, and Eik-Noor Sidhu (Canada, United Kingdom, USA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m1GssauBPNw;
         Critical Relationality as Intentionality: Designing for Inclusion, Saliha Bava and Justine D’Arrigo (United States): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5PM_Yhh-AA;
         Lakou Zanfan: Vodou Education in Haiti – It’s All about Relational Learning, Charlene Desir (Haiti, USA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmMtBfYul_0&feature=youtu.be'
         Reconcili-action: Engaging Students in Changing Institutions, Heather Bensler (Canada): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UheasKOFgGQ&feature=youtu.be;
         Guided by Spirit: It’s Who We Are and Where We Are From, Jordan White, Antonia Victor, Len Pierre, and Marissa McIntyre (Canada): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAN_1ycweLI&feature=youtu.be;
         Race and Gender via Relational Dialogue in the Community College Classroom: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imjlUYYTKSs&feature=youtu.be.
         An Opportunity to Continue the Dialogue
        Feature: Kara Kaufman (United States)
        This informal conversation is hosted by the educators, practitioners, and change
agents who presented the above sessions at the November 2021 conference.
After a brief introduction to the topic, participants will have an opportunity to share their insights and curiosities in small groups.
        All the presentation recordings from the conference are available on our
Education as Relating YouTube playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLlblTswvpXI4JIST5N01B2dJYEs-_FgVJ1."
--==+==--

        "Best Practices Released for Native Language Immersion Programs: New First Nations report details reflections and findings from 32 community partners," First Nations Development Institute, January 27, 2022, https://www.firstnations.org/news/13968/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.jC--E12HSoEOXv8EXdRGEoA.r0SzMqA3nhEi8AeLCWuh9Pg.luv_oL63XmECng40OtcDlwg , reported, " First Nations Development Institute today announced the release of reflections, findings, and best practices from 32 community partners engaged in work to advance Native Language Immersion programs.
        The report, “ Ready for a New Decade: Investing in Native Language Immersion (https://www.firstnations.org/publications/ready-for-a-new-decade-investing-in-native-language-immersion/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.juC58D7Xy5U-tiyp9muMjYw.r_0FZywTDMUWRz3p-Pwv53Q.lrKz8e4gwiEmR8EEF0qY-Lg),” highlights four years of targeted investments made through First Nations’ Native Language Immersion Initiative. Released with the acknowledgement of the United Nations’ Declaration of 2022 to 2032 as the International Decade of Indigenous Language, the report showcases the effectiveness of language immersion as a method for producing a new generation of proficient speakers, the importance of capacity-building investments in Native language immersion programs, and the good work being accomplished in Native language revitalization.
        Through the Native Language Immersion Initiative (https://eml-pusa01.app.blackbaud.net/intv2/j/0F7C2EB8-F2B5-4FE5-AD8B-2A7D9AE32363/r/0F7C2EB8-F2B5-4FE5-AD8B-2A7D9AE32363_cb5941ff-c304-4531-91cf-7a7e3f0bf9dd/l/2DB3CEE6-AD05-4CEA-BAB7-352AB76B6608/c), First Nations supported four rounds of funding for Native language immersion programs from 2018 to 2021. Overall 46 grants totaling over $4 million were awarded to support 32 Native language immersion programs.
        This work was funded with the generous support of the National Endowment for Humanities, NoVo Foundation, Lannan Foundation, Kalliopeia Foundation, Wells Fargo, Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation, and thousands of individual donors across the nation.
Kendall Tallmadge, senior program officer for First Nations, said the initiative and the work of the community partners has helped slow the rapid loss of Indigenous languages by supporting the infrastructure needed for promising models and efforts to educate and cultivate new language speakers.
        Mary Downs, senior program officer at the National Endowment for the Humanities, added that language is where we encode our culture, identity, history, and traditions. “The National Endowment for the Humanities is proud to partner with First Nations in supporting efforts to preserve and revitalize Indigenous languages so that current and future generations of speakers have access to their heritage and to these important forms of cultural knowledge.
        The evaluation report is accompanied by a Summary for Funders and Allies (https://www.firstnations.org/publications/ready-for-a-new-decade-a-summary-for-funders-and-allies/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.juC58D7Xy5U-tiyp9muMjYw.r_0FZywTDMUWRz3p-Pwv53Q.lwZOD1RqXxU25oTF0k5WLrg), which hares targeted advice that aligns with equity and social justice efforts, as well as a Summary for Native Communities and Language Practitioners (https://www.firstnations.org/publications/ready-for-a-new-decade-a-summary-for-native-communities-and-language-practitioners/?bbeml=tp-pck9Q6QNPEiuBt3JmyTokQ.juC58D7Xy5U-tiyp9muMjYw.r_0FZywTDMUWRz3p-Pwv53Q.lqtPJRm8yVUSZEj3mFnu1gQ), which is designed to support other communities that are working on language revitalization.
        First Nations’ Native Language Immersion Initiative is part of the 41-year-old organization’s Strengthening Tribal and Community Institutions and Investing in Native Youth programs, centering Native languages as a core investment and strategy in affirming tribal sovereignty and perpetuating Native resilience solutions and wisdom to address the challenges Native communities face today.
        To learn more about the initiative and access all three reports, visit www.firstnations.org/projects/native-language-immersion-initiative/.
        About First Nations Development Institute For 41 years, using a three-pronged strategy of educating grassroots practitioners, advocating for systemic change, and capitalizing Indian communities, First Nations has been working to restore Native American control and culturally-compatible stewardship of the assets they own – be they land, human potential, cultural heritage or natural resources – and to establish new assets for ensuring the long-term vitality of Native American communities. First Nations serves Native American communities throughout the United States. For more information, visit www.firstnations.org."

        " Streaming VIDEO: First Nations Educational Video," via E-mail, May 3, 2022, "For information and to order: firstnationsfilms.com, stated,

 "Cherished by broadcasters, schools, libraries, universities, individuals and institutions throughout the world. Finally the truth about First Nations people! For, By and About native people. Award-winning television documentaries and dramas. Sharing Our Stories! Please visit our website for information and to order. firstnationsfilms.com."

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International Developments

International Organization Developments

Meeting of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII)
Twenty-First session, April 25-May 6, 2022
Virtual and at United Nations Headquarters in New York City

Theme: “Indigenous peoples, business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence including free, prior and informed consent”.

        The documents from the session, including items relating to side sessions, can be found at: https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/unpfii-twenty-first-session-25-april-6-may-2022.html. A number of sessions are available as video recordings, including some not reported below.
United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
Report on the twenty-first session (25 April–6 May 2022)
Economic and Social Council Official Records, 2022
Supplement No. 23

ISSN 1728-0060
Contents
I. Matters calling for action by the Economic and Social Council or brought to its attention . . . 4
A. Draft decisions recommended by the Permanent Forum for adoption by the Council . . . . 4
International expert group meeting on the theme “Truth, transitional justice and reconciliation processes” ................................................ 4
Venue and dates for the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum on IndigenousIssues...................................................... 4
Report of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues on its twenty-first session andprovisionalagendaforitstwenty-secondsession......................... 4
B. II. Venue,datesandproceedingsofthesession......................................... 23
Matters brought to the attention of the Economic and Social Council ................ 5
AdoptionofthereportofthePermanentForumonitstwenty-firstsession................ 25
Organizationofthesession....................................................... 26
Opening and duration of the session ........................................... 26
Attendance................................................................ 26
Electionofofficers......................................................... 26
Agenda................................................................... 26
Documentation............................................................. 27
Chapter I
Matters calling for action by the Economic and Social Council or brought to its attention

A. Draft decisions recommended by the Permanent Forum for adoption by the Council
1. The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues recommends to the Economic and Social Council the adoption of the following draft decisions:
Draft decision I
International expert group meeting on the theme “Truth, transitional justice and reconciliation processes”
The Economic and Social Council decides to authorize a three-day international expert group meeting on the theme “Truth, transitional justice and reconciliation processes”.
Draft decision II
Venue and dates of the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

The Economic and Social Council decides that the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues shall be held at United Nations Headquarters from 17 to 28 April 2023.
Draft decision III
Report of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues on its twenty-first session and provisional agenda of its twenty-second session

The Economic and Social Council:
(a) Takes note of the report of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues on its twenty-first session;1
(b) Approves the provisional agenda of the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum as set out below:
Election of officers.
Adoption of the agenda and organization of work.
Discussion on the theme “Indigenous peoples, human health, planetary and territorial health and climate change: a rights-based approach”.
Discussion on the six mandated areas of the Permanent Forum (economic and social development, culture, environment, education, health and human rights), with reference to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Dialogues:
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1 Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 2022, Supplement No. 23 (E/2022/43). (a) Dialogue with indigenous peoples;
(b) Dialogue with Member States;
(c) Dialogue with the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes;
(d) Human rights dialogue with the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples and the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;
(e) Regional dialogues;
(f) Dialogue on indigenous platforms established within United Nations entities;
(g) Thematic dialogues.
Future work of the Permanent Forum, including issues considered by the Economic and Social Council, the outcome document of the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples and emerging issues.
Provisional agenda of the twenty-third session of the Permanent Forum.
Adoption of the report of the Permanent Forum on its twenty- second session.
B. Matters brought to the attention of the Economic and Social Council
Decision of the Permanent Forum
2. The following decision adopted by the Permanent Forum at its 1st meeting, on 25 April, is brought to the attention of the Council:
The Permanent Forum decides to enlarge its Bureau to seven members, for its twenty-first session only, to better represent each of its seven regional groups.
Recommendations of the Permanent Forum
3. The Permanent Forum has identified the proposals, objectives, recommendations and areas of possible future action set out below and, through the Council, recommends that States, entities of the United Nations system, intergovernmental organizations, indigenous peoples, the private sector and non-governmental organizations assist in their realization.
4. It is the understanding of the Permanent Forum that the proposals, objectives, recommendations and areas of possible future action to be carried out by the United Nations as set out below will be implemented to the extent possible within the context of the approved programme of work of the relevant entities.
Discussion on the theme “Indigenous peoples, business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence, including free, prior and informed consent” (item 3)
5. Indigenous peoples lack recognition, and face poor implementation of their rights and flagrant violations of their rights and their lands, while the need for their free, prior and informed consent and the right to autonomy of self-government is disregarded by local businesses and transnational corporations in mining, logging, and oil and gas extraction, among other sectors. The territories and resources of indigenous peoples are seized and livelihoods are destroyed to the detriment of their knowledge, cultures and languages. In that respect, it is important to remind Member States of their duty to protect.
6. Moreover, the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights outline the rights of indigenous peoples. According to the Guiding Principles, businesses have a corporate responsibility to respect human rights.
7. Appropriate legislation, effective enforcement and participation by indigenous peoples are crucial to ensure that business activities that impact indigenous peoples’ communities in any manner are guided by the obligation to respect human rights and the environment.
8. Businesses, in their human rights due diligence processes, should meaningfully engage with indigenous peoples as rights holders in business decisions and outcomes affecting them. In that regard, free, prior and informed consent should be understood as their right to give or withhold consent.
9. The Permanent Forum recommends that the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and other relevant United Nations system agencies, in cooperation with the Permanent Forum, study and summarize practices regarding the implementation of free, prior and informed consent globally, that they widely disseminate successful experiences and that they present their findings to the Permanent Forum at its twenty - fourth session, to be held in 2025.
10. Member States must take urgent measures to guarantee adequate and effective participation by indigenous peoples in the design and implementation of national plans for the transition to clean and green energy. Where States have already begun the development of such plans without the participation of indigenous peoples, they must take remedial action.
11. The Permanent Forum invites the World Trade Organization to prepare an analysis of the ways in which indigenous peoples are affected by and included in international trade agreements and treaties, and to present it to the Permanent Forum at its twenty-third session, to be held in 2024.
12. The Permanent Forum invites the Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the situation of human rights defenders to prepare a study on the drivers of attacks against indigenous human rights defenders in business contexts and invites the Special Rapporteur to share information on progress with the Permanent Forum at its twenty-second session, to be held in 2023.
13. The Permanent Forum underlines the crucial role of languages, traditional knowledge and cultural heritage in the economic development of indigenous peoples, as well as their entrepreneurship role for the enjoyment of their rights to culture, language and traditional knowledge.
14. The Permanent Forum regrets the lack of progress in enhancing participation by indigenous peoples at the World Intellectual Property Organization and reiterates previous requests that that Organization adopt a legally binding document to protect the traditional knowledge and intellectual property of indigenous peoples.
15. The Permanent Forum requests ILO, IFAD and the United Nations Development Programme to prepare a study, in collaboration with indigenous peoples, summarizing the experience of implementing programmes for indigenous peoples on socioeconomic development, focussing on best practices in entrepreneurship and creative industries, and to present it to the Permanent Forum at its twenty-third session, to be held in 2024.
16. Recognizing that the creative economy is among the most dynamically developing economic sectors, and noting its capacity for the sustainable development, the Permanent Forum recommends that the United Nations Industrial Development Organization develop, in cooperation with indigenous peoples and Member States, a comprehensive programme for the development of indigenous businesses and creative industries, including through capacity-building programmes on entrepreneurship for indigenous peoples and mechanisms for financial support to start-ups. In that regard, funding from Member States for the development of start-up incubators based on cultural heritage, traditional occupations, crafts and knowledge is encouraged.
17. The Permanent Forum expresses its readiness to examine existing practices and ways of developing various forms of administrative and territorial autonomy for indigenous peoples’ communities whose representatives lead a traditional, nomadic way of life, as part of the development of the guiding principles on indigenous peoples’ autonomy and self-government as recommended in the study on indigenous peoples’ autonomies: experiences and perspectives (E/C.19/2020/5). Such work will be conducted by an online working group of the Permanent Forum. Indigenous peoples’ organizations, representative decision-making bodies and institutions, together with United Nations system entities, Member States and other stakeholders, are invited to contribute financially and practically and to take an active part in the work of the working group.
18. The Permanent Forum invites the African Development Bank to develop a policy of engagement with indigenous peoples that includes effective safeguards, and invites the African Development Bank to report to the Permanent Forum at its twenty - third session, to be held in 2024, on its progress.
19. The Permanent Forum is concerned by issues related to land tenure, the collective rights of indigenous peoples, customary rights, land-grabbing and the closure of transhumance corridors. The Permanent Forum therefore recommends that States of the Sahel and the Congo basin establish a legal framework to consolidate their national and local land tenure regimes with a view to resolving conflicts peacefully. In addition, those States should enhance access to justice for the affected indigenous pastoralists and provide training for judicial officials on those issues.
20. The Permanent Forum therefore requests the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel to support Member States in the Sahel and the Congo basin in this work, in collaboration with indigenous peoples. In general, indigenous peoples should be invited to contribute to the implementation of the mandate of the Office. Other initiatives of importance to indigenous peoples are the Joint Force of the Group of Five for the Sahel and the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative. The Permanent Forum invites the Office to attend its twenty-second session, to be held in 2023, to share information on progress in its work.
21. Decision-making bodies, including customary and traditional bodies of conflict- affected indigenous peoples, should be recognized as legitimate parties to conflict resolution efforts. Therefore, administrative and customary authorities and traditional leaders of indigenous peoples should receive training on peaceful dispute resolution. Relevant United Nations system entities, including the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women) and the International Organization for Migration, should mobilize the financial and technical resources necessary for the worldwide use of peacebuilding tools that have been tested with success in the Sahel and of the Congo Basin.
22. The Permanent Forum recalls that, to ensure effective implementation, the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights must be aligned with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169), of ILO, the Regional Agreement on Access to Information, Public Participation and Justice in Environmental Matters in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Escazú Agreement, and the jurisprudence of the human rights treaty bodies. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum recognizes the work of the Human Rights Council to develop an international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises. In that respect, the Permanent Forum stresses the need to ensure that the new instrument affirms indigenous peoples’ rights, including with regard to free, prior and informed consent. The Permanent Forum recommends that this instrument explicitly define due diligence processes and their specific methods of implementation. Therefore, the Permanent Forum underlines the importance of full and effective participation by indigenous peoples throughout the development of the instrument.
23. The Permanent Forum invites the United Nations Global Compact to lead a study on how the human rights of indigenous peoples can be integrated into the model guidance for stock exchanges when reporting on environmental, social and governance information for their market, and report on its progress to the Permanent Forum at its twenty-second session, to be held in 2023.
Dialogues: thematic dialogues (item 5 (f))
International Decade of Indigenous Languages 2022–2032
24. The Permanent Forum welcomes the proclamation by the General Assembly in its resolution 74/135 of the period 2022–2032 as the International Decade of Indigenous Languages. The Permanent Forum also welcomes the global launch of the International Decade and commends the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Global Task Force for Making a Decade of Action for Indigenous Languages for leading the consultations with States and indigenous peoples in all sociocultural regions, as well as for developing the Global Action Plan of the International Decade.
25. The Permanent Forum encourages the General Assembly and UNESCO, in collaboration with the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, to organize high- level launch events for the International Decade, in cooperation with, and with the full and effective participation of, indigenous peoples.
26. The Permanent Forum welcomes the establishment of the Ibero-American Institute of Indigenous Languages to promote the conservation, revitalization, promotion, use and development of indigenous languages.
27. The Permanent Forum urges Member States and all other relevant actors at all levels, in cooperation with indigenous peoples, to issue their action plans by the end of 2022, and that they subsequently monitor their implementation and update them with specific measurement indicators every three years during the International Decade.
28. The Permanent Forum supports the efforts of UNESCO to mobilize resources for the creation of a financial mechanism for the International Decade. The Permanent Forum encourages Member States and the private sector to contribute to this mechanism. Indigenous peoples’ representatives should advise on the granting of funds to initiatives.
29. The Permanent Forum recognizes the important interconnections between the Sustainable Development Goals and indigenous languages, as well as the integration of gender equality principles, as described in the Global Action Plan, and proposes that such indicators be included in the post-2030 development agenda to ensure the sustainability of outcomes and the continuity of efforts established by the International Decade. The Permanent Forum recommends that UNESCO and its member States initiate work, with the possible assistance of the Statistical Commission, on indigenous language-related data, with adequate funding to support the post-2030 priorities. The Permanent Forum invites the Indigenous Navigator to offer its tools and data for the global collection of data on indigenous languages.
30. The Permanent Forum recognizes the key role of indigenous peoples in launching initiatives and projects related to the International Decade, such as the Shawnee tribe’s declaration of a decade of the Shawnee language and the establishment of a language immersion programme, as well as the initiative of the Cherokee Nation to establish a Cherokee language centre. Similarly, the Nganasan and Enets peoples in the Taimyr Peninsula have established “language nests” to support early immersion, based on the methodology used for the revitalization of Maori, Hawaiian, Karelian and Inari Sami languages. The Permanent Forum encourages indigenous peoples in other countries to follow their example.
31. The Permanent Forum recommends that UNESCO and other United Nations entities facilitate the work of language activists, including through methodological, educational, scientific, psychosocial and financial support, within the framework of the International Decade. The Permanent Forum invites UNESCO and its Forum of National Commissions, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research to develop, in cooperation with experts and representatives of indigenous peoples, an incubator of international methodologies in multilingual education, including studies of language revitalization best practices, teacher training and cross-cultural learning tools by 2025.
32. The Permanent Forum recognizes the crucial role of academia in researching, documenting and teaching indigenous languages. It encourages UNESCO to duly consider and accept UNESCO Chair applications by universities and research institutions with a view to establishing UNESCO Chairs on indigenous languages and other educational initiatives that support the goals of the International Decade.
33. The Permanent Forum encourages Member States and relevant subnational governmental bodies and agencies to ensure the allocation of funding for the establishment of appropriate institutions, including by establishing permanent linguist positions, to promote the conservation, revitalization, use and development of indigenous languages. Particular attention should be given to languages at risk of extinction.
34. The Permanent Forum also calls upon Member States to expand indigenous language immersion methods and bilingual schools to support indigenous children and youth to reclaim their languages. The Permanent Forum recommends that Member States, where appropriate, incorporate intercultural and bilingual education in national school curricula, including through language immersion programmes, and ensure that the language of the subnational region or area in which the school is located is part of the curricula. In this regard, the Permanent Forum recommends that Member States, in close cooperation with indigenous peoples, establish educational programmes on indigenous languages for indigenous teachers, filmmakers, translators and interpreters, scientists, information technology specialists and other professionals. Such efforts would support the expansion of domains covered by indigenous languages and, consequently, contribute to language development and maintenance and the restoration of indigenous peoples’ pride in their own languages.
35. Recognizing the central role of public and indigenous peoples’ education systems, the Permanent Forum recommends that Member States collect disaggregated data, within the next two years, on the number of indigenous students who attend kindergartens, small ungraded schools, nomadic schools and boarding schools across the regions to secure opportunities for children to remain in their communities.
36. The Permanent Forum encourages Member States, local authorities and UNESCO to assist indigenous peoples in establishing working groups on language planning, development and modernization, with financial support. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum recommends that UNESCO undertake a study on best practices for language curriculum development and publicize its findings by 2024.
37. Given the unique role of information and communications technology companies in the design, development and use of contemporary language technologies, the Permanent Forum reiterates its invitation to the private sector to contribute to the International Decade. The Permanent Forum encourages these companies to continue to develop digital platforms, in cooperation with indigenous peoples and academic institutions, in order to compile information archives for the preservation and revitalization of indigenous languages, language corpora, speech recognition, machine translation and synthesis tools, digital dictionaries and online courses.
38. The Permanent Forum welcomes the importance that the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees attaches to the use of indigenous languages when working with indigenous peoples in emergency situations. The Permanent Forum encourages other United Nations agencies, funds and programmes to follow that positive practice. For instance, the Permanent Forum recommends that the World Health Organization (WHO) prioritize indigenous languages as a determinant of health.
39. The Permanent Forum acknowledges the work of the International Telecommunication Union, in collaboration with indigenous peoples’ organizations, on digital inclusion training programmes in the Americas region. The Permanent Forum recognizes the need to undertake additional efforts aimed at eliminating the existing digital inequality affecting indigenous peoples and invites the International Telecommunication Union to expand its programmes globally, with a special emphasis on nomadic and semi-nomadic indigenous peoples.
40. In accordance with article 16 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, indigenous peoples have the right to full freedom of expression, including the right to establish their own media in their own languages. The Permanent Forum is concerned that indigenous peoples of Latin America have been criminalized for the establishment of community radio stations and urges Member States to protect the rights of indigenous communicators.
41. The Permanent Forum calls upon UNESCO, in its coordination of the International Decade, to give attention to the role of indigenous languages in the preservation of traditional food and knowledge systems that are important to climate change adaptation strategies.
42. The Permanent Forum encourages the commencement of discussions among Member States and indigenous peoples during the International Decade on the implications of a possible UNESCO convention on the safeguarding and revitalization of endangered languages.
Human rights dialogue with the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples and the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
(item 5 (d))

43. The Permanent Forum welcomes the progress made towards developing plans to realize the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Canada and New Zealand. The Permanent Forum invites Canada and New Zealand to present their final plans on constructive cooperation at the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum, to be held in 2023.
44. The Permanent Forum notes the formal acceptance by the Government of Australia of a country visit by the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples under their country engagement mandate, as requested by the Noongar Family Safety and Wellbeing Council in Western Australia.
45. The Permanent Forum reiterates the importance of the legal recognition of indigenous peoples within national constitutions. The Permanent Forum takes note of the position expressed by the Government of Chile on the recognition of indigenous peoples. The Permanent Forum invites Chile to provide an update on progress at the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum, to be held in 2023. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum supports the call from indigenous peoples of Australia at the meeting held in Uluru in 2017 for a process on the three core components of the Uluru Statement from the Heart – “Voice, Treaty and Truth” – and constitutional recognition of indigenous rights consistent with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
46. The Permanent Forum decided to create a virtual working group on truth, reconciliation and transitional justice, including in post-conflict areas, for lasting peace that respects the rights of indigenous peoples, promoting the full and effective inclusion of indigenous peoples, including indigenous women. The working group is comprised of members of three United Nations indigenous mechanisms, indigenous peoples, academia and civil society, as well as representatives of transitional justice and reconciliation mechanisms.
47. The Permanent Forum welcomes the first meeting of Escazú Agreement. The Escazú Agreement is the first instrument that includes provisions on the protection of human rights defenders in environmental matters. The Permanent Forum urges States parties to ensure implementation of the Agreement and invites them to establish mechanisms for the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples in the work thereof. The Permanent Forum reiterates its invitation to countries that have not yet signed or ratified the Agreement to do so.
48. The Permanent Forum regrets the continuous killings, violence and harassment targeted at indigenous human rights defenders, including indigenous women, in the context of resisting mining and infrastructure projects and other such developments. The Permanent Forum therefore invites Member States to honour their human rights obligations. In this regard, the Permanent Forum welcomes General Assembly resolution 76/148 on the rights of indigenous peoples, in which States are urged to take necessary measures to ensure the rights, protection and safety of indigenous peoples, including indigenous leaders and indigenous human rights defenders, and to ensure that perpetrators are held accountable and that access to justice and remedy is guaranteed.
49. The Permanent Forum regrets the very high incarceration rates of indigenous peoples globally, which contributes to poor health, poverty and untimely death, including in indigenous families and communities. States are reminded of their obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and should therefore address this issue urgently by reducing the incarceration and eliminating the cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment of indigenous peoples by justice systems.
50. The Permanent Forum recommends that the United States of America grant clemency to Leonard Peltier, who has been imprisoned since 1977 and is now an elderly person.
51. The Permanent Forum reiterates its position, as stated in the report on its twentieth session (E/2021/43, para. 10), urging Colombia to promote and guarantee the rights of indigenous peoples, in particular by achieving the goals and indicators set out in the “ethnic chapter” of the peace agreement. In this regard, the Permanent Forum wishes to offer its support, within the terms of its mandate, to facilitate dialogues between the Government of Colombia and indigenous peoples.
52. The Permanent Forum remains concerned about continuing human rights violations, including arbitrary killings and extrajudicial executions, throughout north- eastern India. It echoes the call of indigenous peoples (scheduled tribes) of the region and urges India to repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act of 1958, investigate alleged human rights abuses in the region and hold those responsible to account.
53. The Permanent Forum welcomes the work of the Government of Bangladesh with United Nations country offices to support peace in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Permanent Forum further welcomes the ongoing study on the status of implementation of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord of 1997 and invites the Government of Bangladesh, with the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples, to report on the results of the study at the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum, setting a timeframe for its full implementation. The Permanent Forum also calls upon the Government of Bangladesh to continue to address all forms of violence, including enforced disappearances, and sexual violence against women in the Chittagong Hill Tracts committed by law enforcement agencies.
54. The Permanent Forum recommends that the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, in cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), facilitate a series of online regional meetings in 2023 to discuss the development of standards and redress mechanisms for conservation programmes that affect indigenous peoples’ lands, territories and waters. The dialogue should include the Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the rights of indigenous peoples, the Permanent Forum, indigenous peoples’ representatives, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and other stakeholders. The Permanent Forum would welcome a presentation of the outcomes of such a meeting at its twenty-third session, to be held in 2024.
55. The Permanent Forum continues to be deeply disturbed by the threats that the extractive industries, infrastructure megaprojects, such as roads and dams, legal and illegal logging, and the expansion of large-scale agriculture pose to the indigenous peoples living in voluntary isolation and initial contact. While recognizing the guidelines for the protection of indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation and initial contact in the Americas prepared by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the corresponding guidelines elaborated by OHCHR, the Permanent Forum recommends that OHCHR, in cooperation with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and with the participation of indigenous peoples’ organizations, evaluate the progress made, identify implementation gaps and make recommendations to advance the protection of indigenous peoples living in voluntary isolation and initial contact and to guarantee their rights.
56. The Permanent Forum welcomes the adoption by the United Nations Environment Assembly of the United Nations Environment Programme of a resolution entitled “End plastic pollution: towards an international legally binding instrument” (document UNEP/EA.5/Res.14). The negotiation of a legally binding agreement should provide an opportunity to ensure that a human rights-based approach is applied to global plastics management, taking into account the most vulnerable ecosystems and the peoples who depend thereon, such as in the Arctic.
57. The year 2022 is the International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture. The Permanent Forum therefore recommends that FAO prepare a study on the impacts of industrial fishing on the rights of indigenous peoples in regard to traditional fishing. The Permanent Forum invites the Organization to share the findings of said study at the twenty-third session of the Permanent Forum, to be held in 2024.
58. The Permanent Forum welcomes the draft general recommendation on the rights of indigenous women and girls of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. The Permanent Forum reiterates its recommendation, contained in the report on its twentieth session (E/2021/43, para. 32), that the general recommendation be adopted at the earliest opportunity. The Permanent Forum invites the Committee to share its plans for implementation of the general recommendation at the twenty-third session of the Permanent Forum, to be held in 2024.
59. The Permanent Forum is deeply concerned about the particular vulnerabilities of indigenous children. In this regard, it notes the study of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on the rights of the indigenous child under the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (A/HRC/48/74) and the note by the Secretariat entitled “Update on the promotion and application of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: violence against children” (E/C.19/2022/4), prepared in collaboration with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children. The Permanent Forum calls upon Member States to prioritize the human rights of indigenous children and young people, in cooperation with indigenous peoples. The Permanent Forum further calls upon those States that have not yet ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including its three Optional Protocols – on a communications procedure, on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and on the involvement of children in armed conflict, to do so as soon as possible.
60. The Permanent Forum urges the Government of Kenya to implement the recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the rights of Endorois to the ownership of their ancestral lands, to the restitution thereof and to compensation in that connection.
61. The Permanent Forum calls upon the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to immediately cease efforts to evict the Maasai people from the Ngorongoro Conservation Area.
Discussion on the six mandated areas of the Permanent Forum (economic and social development, culture, environment, education, health and human rights), with reference to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the outcome document of the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (item 4)
62. The Permanent Forum expresses concern over the misappropriation and misuse of indigenous peoples’ cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, and urges States and companies, in cooperation with indigenous peoples, to take effective measures to recognize and protect their rights, in accordance with article 31 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In this regard, the Permanent Forum calls upon Member States to take measures to safeguard indigenous peoples’ rights to intellectual property by adopting laws and public policies, in which it is recognized that indigenous peoples have the right over their creations, knowledge, discoveries, works, traditional cultural expressions and other elements.
63. The Permanent Forum notes that the Constitutional Court of Guatemala issued ruling No. 2112-2016 of 24 October 2017 on indigenous peoples’ intellectual collective property. The Permanent Forum urges Guatemala to comply with the ruling and to adopt laws and policies, respecting the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples.
64. The Permanent Forum, in line with the report on its twentieth session (E/2021/43), is resolved to continue to address all forms of discrimination against indigenous peoples, including discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics, religion, disability and age.
65. The Permanent Forum calls on affected Member States to implement the rulings of their supreme courts on indigenous peoples’ rights, such as the recent court decision in Norway on wind turbines in Fosen, in full cooperation with indigenous peoples.
66. The Permanent Forum urges the World Intellectual Property Organization, UNESCO, the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant United Nations entities to align their internal policies, within their respective mandates, so as to recognize and protect the collective intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples in respect of their creations, discoveries, traditional knowledge and knowledge of biodiversity. The Permanent Forum invites the above-mentioned United Nations entities to report back to future sessions on the progress made in that regard.
67. The Permanent Forum, bearing in mind the contributions of indigenous peoples’ traditional medicines to the recovery from the pandemic, invites the World Health Assembly to declare an international year of indigenous peoples’ traditional medicines by 2025.
68. The Permanent Forum urges States to respect and support indigenous peoples’ priorities, including through the development and implementation of economic recovery strategic plans to support and strengthen indigenous peoples’ institutions, authorities and decision-making bodies in the exercise of their right to self- determination. Indigenous peoples have the right to possess the means for financing their autonomous functions and priorities.
69. The Permanent Forum further urges resident coordinators to prepare their United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Frameworks to support the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples in strategic plans for their economic recovery. Resident coordinators are invited to provide an update to future sessions of the Permanent Forum through the Development Coordination Office on how the strategic recovery plans were developed and implemented.
70. The Permanent Forum urges States to support the economic activities of indigenous peoples, in particular indigenous women, by enhancing their equal access to productive resources and agricultural inputs, such as land, seeds, financial services, technology, transportation and information.
71. The Permanent Forum encourages the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) to continue its efforts in operationalizing the principle of free, prior and informed consent in its investments, including through the engagement of indigenous experts in project delivery teams.
72. The Permanent Forum takes note of the sixth call for proposals of the Indigenous Peoples Assistance Facility of IFAD, which is focused on advancing indigenous peoples’ biodiversity conservation and sustainable management for adaptation and resilience to climate change. The Permanent Forum urges IFAD to facilitate direct access to climate financing to indigenous peoples’ communities and organizations through the Facility and the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, and encourages Governments and donors to support those initiatives.
73. The Permanent Forum recommends that, in the context of the International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture, FAO and ILO conduct a study on the human rights violations suffered by indigenous peoples in the fishing sector. The Permanent Forum invites those organizations to present their findings at the annual session of the Permanent Forum to be held in 2024.
74. The Permanent Forum underlines the need for the examination of national practices for preserving the sacred and burial sites of indigenous peoples and for the provision of recommendations to States and United Nations entities on ways to prevent the loss of sacred, religious, spiritual and burial sites.
75. The Permanent Forum welcomes the $1.7 billion pledge in support of indigenous peoples made by Governments and private funders at the twenty-sixth session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Glasgow, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. However, the Permanent Forum is concerned that this pledge does not adequately address the effects of climate change. An effective response to the challenges presented by global climate change requires a concerted effort that encompasses all seven sociocultural regions of the world. The Permanent Forum requests that the pledge-givers include indigenous peoples from all seven sociocultural regions as recipients and redefine the scope of their commitment so that the funding is not only about forests and land tenure, but also reflects indigenous peoples’ self-determination, the building of alliances and the strengthening of indigenous peoples’ local economies, governance systems and resource management strategies.
76. The Permanent Forum urges the World Food Programme to respect the habitual diet of indigenous peoples and to avoid the introduction of foreign foods of low nutritional quality in indigenous peoples’ communities. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum urges the World Food Programme to ensure that its methods of intervention are sensitive to indigenous peoples’ social fabric and respectful of their perceptions of the humanitarian-development nexus.
77. The Permanent Forum requests that FAO and the United Nations Environment Programme, with the participation of indigenous peoples, develop a technical policy paper on indigenous peoples’ collective rights to lands, territories and natural resources in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security for submission to the Committee on World Food Security.
78. The Permanent Forum recommends that the WHO incorporate indigenous peoples’ cultures into the social determinants of health policies. The Permanent Forum urges WHO to review, update and expand its policy on indigenous peoples’ health. The Permanent Forum invites WHO to contribute to the work of the Permanent Forum at its twenty-second session on the health of indigenous peoples.
Indigenous women and girls
79. The Permanent Forum heard from the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences on her upcoming report on violence against indigenous women and girls to be presented at the fiftieth session of the Human Rights Council. The Permanent Forum commends the work of the Special Rapporteur on the causes and consequences of violence against indigenous women and girls and looks forward to studying her report.
80. The Permanent Forum reiterates its recommendation made at its eighteenth session for the Pan American Health Organization to prepare a study on the advancements in indigenous maternal health, including with the participation of indigenous midwives (E/2019/43, para. 45). The Permanent Forum also recommends that WHO prepare similar studies in other regions.
81. The Permanent Forum recommends that the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) advance data and research on the challenges that indigenous women and girls face in realizing their right to bodily autonomy and the right to be free from violence, including reproductive coercion and in birthing practices. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum invites UNFPA to prepare a study on indigenous women’s bodily autonomy, with the participation of indigenous women, and to present its findings at the twenty-third session of the Permanent Forum, to be held in 2024.
82. The Permanent Forum calls on FAO and WHO to amend the International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management to take into account the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples.
83. The Permanent Forum appreciates the participation, at its twenty-first session, of the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes and recommends that the Special Rapporteur urge Member States to guarantee indigenous peoples’ rights to clean water. The Permanent Forum invites the Special Rapporteur to participate at its twenty-second session, in 2023.
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
84. The Permanent Forum is concerned about the lack of data on indigenous peoples across the United Nations system, especially with regard to target 17.18 of the Sustainable Development Goals concerning the development of inclusive policies that leave no one behind. The Permanent Forum recognizes the need for establishing standards on the collection, analysis and dissemination of statistical information related to indigenous peoples and will engage in efforts with relevant stakeholders to achieve these ends. As a first step, the Permanent Forum invites United Nations entities to make their statistics on indigenous peoples accessible.
Future work of the Permanent Forum, including issues considered by the Economic and Social Council and emerging issues (item 6)
85. Indigenous peoples have been a distinct constituency at the United Nations since 1977 and, with the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples by the General Assembly in 2007, their inherent rights were affirmed as the international minimum standard. The Permanent Forum reiterates the position of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, namely that it is unacceptable to undermine the status and standing of indigenous peoples by combining or equating them with non-indigenous entities such as minorities, vulnerable groups or local communities. Such attempts, whether by States or United Nations entities, are not acceptable and will be challenged by indigenous peoples and those mandated to defend their rights. The Permanent Forum urges all United Nations entities and States parties to treaties concerning the environment, biodiversity and the climate to eliminate the use of the term “local communities” in conjunction with indigenous peoples, so that the term “indigenous peoples and local communities” would be abolished.
86. The Permanent Forum underlines the importance of the recognition by States of the indigenous peoples living on their territories – one of the key guarantees for the protection of indigenous peoples’ rights and interests in line with relevant international norms and standards, in particular the Declaration.
87. Ensuring a human rights-based approach to indigenous peoples’ rights to land, waters, territories and resources, governance and secure customary tenure is essential for their continued contribution and significant role in achieving the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. Indigenous lands, waters and territories need to be recognized directly and as a category separate from “protected areas” or “other effective area-based conservation measures”, including when recognizing the land rights of indigenous women. A core element of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework should be the development of indicators reflecting indigenous peoples’ rights to facilitate monitoring and implementation. There is an urgent and continuing need for resource mobilization for indigenous peoples, including for indigenous women, to ensure their participation in shaping and implementing the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. In this regard, the Permanent Forum acknowledges the recommendation to organize an expert meeting to develop and study the options and mechanisms for direct access to funding, to be transmitted to the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum supports the continuation of the work of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Inter-sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and related provisions of that Convention and urges States parties thereto to ensure adequate support to provide for a robust work programme.
88. The Permanent Forum recommends that United Nations entities review language and terminology on native breeds, local seed varieties and endemic varieties of plants and animals. The Permanent Forum recommends differentiating such terminology from indigenous peoples’ foods, seeds and breeds, by avoiding the use of the term “indigenous” to dispel confusion.
89. The Permanent Forum notes the importance of several concurrent United Nations Decades that are of importance to indigenous peoples. The Permanent Forum recommends that the United Nations entities responsible for the international decades declared by the General Assembly, such as the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, the International Decade for Action, “Water for Sustainable Development”, 2018–2028, and the International Decade of Indigenous Languages, ensure good communication and coordinate efforts regarding the participation of indigenous peoples and their issues. In this regard, the Permanent Forum recommends that the relevant United Nations entities report to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, which, in turn, is invited to prepare a study on the funding, modalities and scale of indigenous peoples’ participation in all four Decades. The Permanent Forum further invites Member States to support and fund cooperation during the four Decades to ensure the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples.
90. The Permanent Forum welcomes Human Rights Council resolution 48/13 on the human right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment and calls upon the General Assembly to reaffirm and reinforce the human right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, and calls upon the organizations of the United Nations system to take action in this regard.
91. The Permanent Forum applauds the creation of the Coalition on Indigenous Peoples’ Food Systems and will contribute to its efforts. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum will invite discussions on indigenous peoples’ preparations for the high-level political forum on sustainable development.
92. The Permanent Forum recognizes the importance of exploring possibilities for strengthening cooperation with the human rights treaty bodies on issues of relevance to its mandate. The Permanent Forum therefore invites the Chairs of the human rights treaty bodies each to designate a representative to participate in the twenty-second session of the Permanent Forum, to be held in 2023.
93. The Permanent Forum recalls the request it made at its fifteenth session (E/2016/43, para. 47) for UNESCO to host a joint seminar with the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and other relevant United Nations mechanisms for the purpose of exploring the development of a new international mechanism on the repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains. In this regard, the Permanent Forum deeply regrets the absence of UNESCO from the expert group meeting organized by the Expert Mechanism in March 2020 in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss steps for the implementation of such a mechanism. The Permanent Forum recommends the leadership, involvement and cooperation of UNESCO in efforts to implement the recommendations arising from that meeting, as well as the previous recommendation of the Permanent Forum related to the repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains, including through the creation of an international database and inventory of such items accessible to indigenous peoples as a basis for initiating dialogue. The Permanent Forum wishes to remind UNESCO and other United Nations entities that the repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains is enshrined in articles 11 and 12 of the Declaration.
94. In September 2024, 10 years will have passed since the adoption by the General Assembly of the outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the Assembly known as the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, and of its annex, the Alta outcome document. The Permanent Forum calls upon the Secretary-General and the President of the General Assembly to hold a “World Conference on Indigenous Peoples Plus 10” in August 2024 to allow Member States, United Nations entities and indigenous peoples to report on implementation of the outcome document, with the full participation of indigenous peoples.
95. The Permanent Forum recommends that the Secretary-General actively support the enhanced participation of indigenous peoples by participating in the General Assembly process, associated regional dialogues and meetings with the Temporary Committee for the Indigenous Coordinating Body for Enhanced Participation in the United Nations. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum urges Member States to consult with indigenous peoples nationally, regionally and internationally on enhanced participation and to provide financial support for related activities so as to ensure the full, effective, direct and meaningful participation of indigenous peoples in that process.
96. The Permanent Forum decides to appoint members to conduct studies at a later date to present to the Permanent Forum at its twenty-second session, in 2023.
Dialogue with United Nations agencies, funds and programmes (item 5 (c))
97. The Permanent Forum welcomes the work of the Inter-Agency Support Group on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues regarding the implementation of the call to action on the theme “Building an inclusive, sustainable, and resilient future with Indigenous peoples”, in an effort to revitalize the system-wide action plan on the rights of indigenous peoples. In particular, the Permanent Forum also notes the work being carried out with and by resident coordinators to raise awareness among United Nations country teams. It encourages the Inter-Agency Support Group to continue its work on strengthening the implementation of indigenous peoples’ rights frameworks at the national level and on guaranteeing the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples at the country level.
98. The Permanent Forum calls on United Nations entities to elevate the discussion on indigenous peoples to the highest possible governance level of their entities in order to ensure system-wide ownership and support for indigenous peoples’ rights. It encourages the focal points of United Nations entities to facilitate the commencement of dialogues between the Permanent Forum and the heads of the entities. The objective of such dialogues could include reviews of the entities’ internal policies and safeguards guaranteeing the right to self-determination of indigenous peoples, respect for their free, prior and informed consent and due diligence in accordance with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and other relevant international standards by the end of 2022.
99. The Permanent Forum requests United Nations entities, in particular those working on land tenure and changes in land use, to advance the research on securing the land and territorial rights of indigenous peoples, taking into account the negative impacts of, inter alia, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic and regional conflicts.
100. The Permanent Forum recalls its recommendation at the twentieth session, in which it emphasized that existing mechanisms to support the participation of indigenous peoples in processes that affect them must adapt to the new environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and support the online participation of indigenous peoples. Such support includes purchasing data packages and facilitating access to electricity and necessary hardware and in-country travel to gain access to stable Internet connections. The Permanent Forum recommends that the existing mandate of the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Peoples, as reflected in General Assembly resolution 70/232, be expanded to that effect and calls on Member States to ensure that the proposal for the expansion of their mandate is introduced at the seventy-seventh session of the General Assembly in the annual resolution on the rights of indigenous peoples.
101. The Permanent Forum acknowledges the important work of the Fund for the Development of Indigenous Peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean on its thirtieth anniversary. The Permanent Forum encourages Member States, United Nations entities and indigenous peoples to support strengthening the work of the Fund.
102. The Permanent Forum invites the European Commission, through its Directorate-General for International Partnerships and European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations to follow and engage in the work of the Permanent Forum, including by the designation of focal points.
103. The Permanent Forum highlights the need to protect indigenous children as defenders of human rights. The Permanent Forum recognizes the right of the indigenous child to express freely their views in all matters affecting them at the local, regional and global levels. The Permanent Forum further underlines the importance of human rights education for the indigenous child, including on the Convention of the Rights of the Child and United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
Dialogue with Member States (item 5b )
104. The Permanent Forum highlights the importance of implementing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the outcome document of the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples worldwide, and commends the developments in some Member States, particularly the development of action and implementation plans.
105. The Permanent Forum heard suggestions on exploring existing opportunities for enhanced participation formats and modalities of the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the Human Rights Council, and United Nations entities in conjunction with the process mandated by the Assembly in resolution 71/321 entitled “Enhancing the participation of indigenous peoples’ representatives and institutions in meetings of relevant United Nations bodies on issues affecting them”.
106. The Permanent Forum notes that the hybrid format has contributed to the wider participation of indigenous peoples and will consider organizing future sessions in a hybrid format, taking time zones into consideration.
107. The Permanent Forum invites Member States to participate in informal discussions on the effective and efficient impacts of the Permanent Forum on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, including in the contexts of biodiversity, climate change, desertification and the enjoyment of human rights by indigenous peoples, in particular efforts to combat violence against indigenous women and children. The Permanent Forum also invites Member States to enhance the effective participation of indigenous peoples in the design and implementation of efforts in the context the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development; the International Decade for Action, “Water for Sustainable Development”, 2018–2028; the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration; and the International Decade of Indigenous Languages.
108. The Permanent Forum welcomes the call of the Group of Friends of Indigenous Peoples and other Member States to include indigenous peoples in the preparation of voluntary national reviews presented at the high-level political forum on sustainable development.
109. The Permanent Forum invites Member States to organize intersessional meetings to discuss cooperation on pertinent topics with the Permanent Forum.
110. The Permanent Forum encourages Member States to ensure a stronger presence and stronger participation during all meetings organized by the Permanent Forum and the Secretariat.
Regional dialogues: indigenous peoples and post-pandemic recovery (item 5 (e))
111. The Permanent Forum held seven dialogues aimed at engaging participants in deeper dialogue on relevant issues and on challenges faced by indigenous peoples in the various regions, including in the context of recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Africa
112. The Permanent Forum continues to be concerned by the lack of participation of African indigenous peoples. The Permanent Forum recommends that the General Assembly encourage relevant United Nations entities to make the necessary financial and administrative arrangements that allow for the participation of indigenous peoples at relevant United Nations meetings, including online.
113. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the livelihoods of indigenous peoples, including nomadic peoples. Furthermore, the pandemic has exacerbated the plight of young women with regard to forced early marriage, female genital mutilation and lack of access to health care. The Permanent Forum calls on Member States to implement effective measures to address these challenges in their post-pandemic recovery efforts.
114. The Permanent Forum welcomes the decision by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights to promote and protect the rights of non-dominant minorities in Africa, who are distinct from indigenous populations and/or communities. While recognizing the importance of the rights of persons belonging to minorities, the Permanent Forum is concerned that the expanded mandate could compromise the current Commission standards for promoting the rights of indigenous peoples. The Permanent Forum therefore urges the Commission to establish a separate working group on minority rights. The Permanent Forum calls on the Commission to work closely with it, indigenous peoples representatives from Africa, and United Nations entities to highlight and advance the recognition, rights and participation of indigenous peoples at the regional and national levels. Furthermore, the Permanent Forum recommends that the Commission designate a focal point on indigenous peoples.
Arctic
115. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed existing inequalities and challenges that indigenous peoples across the Arctic region face. These include an infrastructure deficit that contributes overall to a higher prevalence of infectious diseases, poverty rates and other factors affecting the well-being of indigenous peoples. The pandemic and related border closures have also had a negative impact on indigenous peoples and their livelihoods.
116. The Permanent Forum welcomes recent proposals made by the Sami to address cross-border collaboration and urges the States involved to work constructively with the affected indigenous peoples in these matters. The Permanent Forum also welcomes the Inuit Nunangat Policy of Canada, by which Inuit Nunangat is recognized as a distinct geographic, cultural and political region that encompasses the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunavik, and Nunatsiavut. The Permanent Forum invites other Member States to develop, in close cooperation with indigenous peoples, similar arrangements that recognize indigenous peoples’ ancestral territories.
Asia
117. Recognition of Asia’s indigenous peoples by Governments is key to achieving effective implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No.169). Without such recognition, indigenous peoples are subject to marginalization, assimilation and violent attacks.
118. Post-pandemic recovery efforts have exacerbated human rights violations against indigenous peoples across Asia. Governments have used economic recovery plans as a justification to seize indigenous lands for the purposes of resource extraction, and indigenous environmental defenders are often threatened and arrested. The Permanent Forum calls on Member States to guarantee the principles of free, prior and informed consent throughout its post-pandemic recovery efforts to ensure that the socioeconomic development of indigenous territories is implemented in full cooperation with indigenous peoples.
Central and South America and the Caribbean
119. The topics highlighted at the Central and South America and the Caribbean dialogue included collective intellectual property rights, indigenous migrants, traditional medicine, land rights, territorial exploitation and displacement, indigenous human rights defenders, criminalization and persecution.
120. The Permanent Forum urges Member States to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) and the Escazú Agreement.
121. The Permanent Forum recommends that United Nations entities establish programmes and working groups to facilitate the recruitment of indigenous professionals. United Nations entities are invited to report on the advancement of such recruitment endeavours at future sessions of the Permanent Forum.
North America
122. Important issues raised during the North America dialogue included the intergenerational trauma and continued mental health impact of boarding schools, access to mental health and health in the post-pandemic recovery period, the participation of indigenous peoples and violence against indigenous women and girls, including missing and murdered women and girls.
123. Participants highlighted that the establishment of transitional justice mechanisms, such as truth and reconciliation commissions, can play an important role in uncovering the truth and achieving a certain level of reconciliation, including the tragic legacy of boarding and residential schools.
124. The Permanent Forum calls on the Government of Canada to fully implement the recommendations emanating from its Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The Permanent Forum calls on the United States of America to formalize the establishment of a truth and reconciliation mechanism on the boarding school crisis.
125. The Permanent Forum calls on Canada and the United States of America to develop national action plans to realize the aims of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and appoint an ambassador or special envoy on global indigenous affairs to promote the rights of indigenous peoples globally, including on participation.
Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation, Central Asia and Transcaucasia
126. The Permanent Forum heard accounts from indigenous peoples on how the use of traditional knowledge, medicine and food and the continuation of their traditional livelihoods had helped them in their efforts to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Residence in remote areas and the restrictions on mobility posed by the authorities had protected indigenous communities from the virus. However, these conditions also signified limited access to public services, including emergency health care. In some instances, indigenous peoples’ participation in decision-making had not returned to the pre-pandemic level.
127. The Permanent Forum calls for the respect of the rights of indigenous peoples at all times.
Pacific
128. The Pacific regional dialogue included such issues as violence by States against indigenous peoples, criminalization, damage to and the destruction of indigenous lands and risks posed by mining and land development, and constitutional recognition of indigenous peoples in the Pacific region. The Hawaiian people’s resistance to the annexation of Hawaii by the United States was highlighted, as was the West Papuan peoples’ assertion of their rights to decolonization and independence.
129. Indigenous peoples are using other United Nations mechanisms, such as the complaint referred to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination by Aboriginal people concerning heritage protection.
130. The Permanent Forum is concerned about the contemporary removal of children in Australia and New Zealand. High removal rates of indigenous children pose serious risk to their safety, wellbeing and cultural identity.
131. The Permanent Forum is concerned about damage to Mauna Kea in Hawaii and wider risks to clean and safe drinking water.
Chapter II Venue, dates and proceedings of the session
132. By its decision 2021/236, the Economic and Social Council decided that the twenty-first session of the Permanent Forum would be held at United Nations Headquarters from 25 April to 6 May 2022.
133. At its 3rd and 4th meetings, on 26 April, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 3, entitled “Discussion on the theme ‘Indigenous peoples, business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence, including free, prior and informed consent’”. For its consideration of the item, the Permanent Forum had before it three notes by the Secretariat transmitting the report of the international expert group meeting on the theme “Indigenous peoples, business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence, including free, prior and informed consent” (E/C.19/2022/6); a study on indigenous peoples and resource conflicts in the Sahel and in the Congo Basin (E/C.19/2022/7); and a study on the rights of indigenous peoples in relation to the global energy mix (E/C.19/2022/9). At its 12th meeting, on 6 May, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
134. At its 7th meeting and 9th meetings, on 28 and 29 April, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 4, entitled “Discussion on the six mandated areas of the Permanent Forum (economic and social development, culture, environment, education, health and human rights), with reference to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the outcome document of the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. For its consideration of the item, the Permanent Forum had before it a note by the Secretariat entitled “Collective intellectual property and the appropriation of the ideas and creations of indigenous peoples” (E/C.19/2022/8). At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
135. At its 8th meeting, on 29 April, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 5 (a), entitled “Dialogue with indigenous peoples”.
136. At its 11th meeting, on 5 May, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 5 (b), entitled “Dialogue with Member States”. At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
137. At its 10th meeting, on 3 May, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 5 (c), entitled “Dialogue with United Nations agencies, funds and programmes”. For its consideration of the item, the Permanent Forum had before it a note by the Secretariat entitled “System-wide action plan for ensuring a coherent approach to achieving the ends of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: implementation by the United Nations system” (E/C.19/2022/3). At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
138. At its 5th and 6th meetings, on 27 and 28 April, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 5 (d), entitled “Human rights dialogue with the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples and the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”. At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
139. At seven informal meetings, including two sets of two meetings held in parallel, from 3 to 5 May, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 5 (e), entitled “Regional dialogues”. At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
140. At its 2nd meeting, on 25 April, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 5 (f), entitled “Thematic dialogues”. For its consideration of the item, the Permanent Forum had before it two notes by the Secretariat entitled “International Decade of Indigenous Languages, 2022–2032: Global Action Plan” (E/C.19/2022/5), and “Use of indigenous languages in formal education systems in Latin America, Southern Africa and Northern Eurasia” (E/C.19/2022/10). At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
141. At its 6th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 6, entitled “Future work of the Permanent Forum, including issues considered by the Economic and Social Council and emerging issues”. At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted its recommendations submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. B).
142. At its 12th meeting, the Permanent Forum considered agenda item 7, entitled “Provisional agenda of the twenty-second session”, and agenda item 8, entitled “Adoption of the report”. At the same meeting, the Permanent Forum considered and adopted a draft decision submitted under that item (see chap. I, sect. A).
143. At two informal closed meetings, on 27 April and 6 May, the Permanent Forum met to hold discussions.
Chapter III Adoption of the report of the Permanent Forum on its twenty-first session
144. At the 12th meeting, on 6 May, the Rapporteur introduced the draft decisions and recommendations and the draft report of the Permanent Forum on its twenty-first session.
145. At the same meeting, the Permanent Forum adopted its draft report.
Chapter IV Organization of the session
Opening and duration of the session
146. The Permanent Forum held its twenty-first session at United Nations Headquarters from 25 April to 6 May 2022. It held 12 formal meetings, including 3 closed meetings, and 9 informal meetings, including 2 closed meetings and, twice, 2 meetings in parallel, to consider the items on its agenda.
147. At the 1st meeting, on 25 April, the session was opened by the temporary Chair, the Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs. At the opening ceremony, a representative of the Bear Clan, Mohawk of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Katsenhaiénton Lazare, delivered a welcome address.
148. At the same meeting, the Permanent Forum adopted a draft decision (see chap. I, sect. B).
149. Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the President of the General Assembly, the President of the Economic and Social Council, the Chair of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs and Acting Secretary-General’s Envoy on Technology (on behalf of the Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs).
Attendance
150. Members of the Permanent Forum and representatives of Governments, intergovernmental organizations and bodies, United Nations entities and non-governmental and indigenous organizations attended the session. The list of participants will be published at a later date.
Election of officers
151. At its 1st meeting, the Permanent Forum elected the following members of the Bureau by acclamation:
Chair:
Darío José Mejía Montalvo
Vice-Chairs:
Geoffrey Scott Roth, Aleksei Tsykarev, Oumarou Ibrahim Hindou, Anne Nuorgam,
Phoolman Chaudhary
Rapporteur:
Tove Søvndahl Gant
Agenda
152. At its 1st meeting, the Permanent Forum adopted the provisional agenda contained in document E/C.19/2022/1.
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TWENTY-FIRST SESSION, 1ST & 2ND MEETINGS (AM & PM)
Extraction Operations on Indigenous Peoples' Land without Consent Cause Irreparable Harm, Speakers Stress, as Permanent Forum Begins Session

The explosive growth of extractive operations around the world often plays out on indigenous people’s lands without their consent, causing irreparable harm to their livelihoods, cultures, languages and lives, speakers told the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues today, as it opened its 2022 session amid calls to respect their free, prior and informed consent on the existential decisions uprooting their communities.
Gathered in the General Assembly Hall for the first time in three years, indigenous representatives were welcomed in a traditional ceremony led by Katsenhaienton Lazare of the Bear Clan, Mohawk of the Haudenosaunee, who acknowledged nature in its great diversity — the winds, thunders, lightening, sun and other life forces — which give purpose and protection to humankind, and summoned generations of traditional ancestors who still have much to offer today’s societies.
The invocation dovetailed with the theme of the Forum’s twenty-first session — “Indigenous peoples, business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence including free, prior and informed consent” — and start of the International Decade of Indigenous Languages, 2022-2032.
In opening remarks, Permanent Forum Chair Darío José Mejía Montalvo (Colombia), who was elected at the meeting’s outset, said the 2022 theme touches upon the universal cosmos visions through which indigenous peoples have developed their own systems for food, culture and coexistence with nature on their territories.
“We share a holistic relationship with nature, where rights are not anthropocentric,” he explained. Nature allows indigenous peoples to have certain rights but reserves others, as a way of maintaining balance and harmony. For many indigenous peoples, the Earth is their mother, while for others, it is the sea, wind, rain, thunder, mountain, snake or the eagle. “Ultimately, an infinity of sacred histories and stories underpin our visions of the world,” he said
Ancestors too have rights — including to continue to exist — because their task is enduring in the preservation of life, he continued, asserting that “this is not romanticism. This is life.” These ancestral practices maintain life in all its forms, with dignity. Therefore, the question of whether indigenous knowledge is scientific is “meaningless”. Concepts of life, energy and spirituality are synonymous. Separating them from an economic, religious or other point of view leads to confusion, disputes and unnecessary clashes. In the cosmos, on Earth and in the hearts of plants, insects, rivers and seas, there are no divisions.
By contrast, he said that while indigenous peoples’ rights to self-determination, land, resources and — importantly — free, prior and informed consent are guaranteed under international norms, these rights are often not applied, even in countries where they are legally recognized. They are, instead, routinely violated by States in the granting of lumber, timber, mining, mega-dam and other contracts. The pillaging of their resources, loss of their ways of life, cultures and languages, and the disappearing and killing of their leaders are the results of harmful business activities. The unsatisfactory responses from Governments meanwhile underscore the need to bring these issues to the Forum’s attention.
He went on to express deep concern over the current energy matrix and called for change, without which the extermination of indigenous peoples will continue, along with expropriation of their lands and the sweeping aside of their rights. He pressed States to help devise a legally binding instrument to regulate transnational business activities — one that adheres to international human rights and includes explicit provisions for indigenous peoples’ rights to their lands, territory and resources, and for their free, prior and informed consent on decisions affecting them.
He described the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 169 as “fundamental lodestars” in this regard and warned that industries from fashion and media to textiles, food and pharmaceutical production are perpetuating “enclave economy models” that expropriate knowledge and practices from indigenous peoples.
More broadly, he encouraged States to replicate what the Ibero-American Institute for Indigenous Languages has done to promote the use, conservation and revitalization of these languages. As well, he also encouraged the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women to adopt the Forum’s Draft General Recommendation on the rights of indigenous women and girls. Underscoring to the central importance of recognizing indigenous peoples’ rights in investigation for transitional and restorative justice, he said: “All of these efforts must be interlinked and stepped up.”
Echoing those calls, General Assembly President Abdulla Shahid (Maldives) said that for generations, indigenous communities have prioritized a relationship with nature - grounded in kinship, centred around reciprocity and infused with reverence. “By emulating their example on a broader scale, we can preserve the Earth’s rich biodiversity and diverse landscapes.” With their involvement, the United Nations will be better positioned to meet the Sustainable Development Goals, while leaving no one behind.
He pointed out that indigenous people comprise less than 5 per cent of the global population, yet protect 80 per cent of global biodiversity, stressing that high linguistic diversity occurs where conditions for biological diversity thrive. “It’s the richness of one that sustains the other,” he explained.
There is growing scientific evidence that indigenous languages that are rich in oral traditions offer evidence for events that happened thousands of years ago, he said. “By preserving and promoting these languages, we preserve and promote an important part of our human heritage, identity and belonging.” Further, in acknowledging indigenous linguistic and cultural contributions, “we have an obligation to ensure that they can participate in and benefit from the work of the United Nations,” he said. “My personal commitment to implement the mandates related to indigenous people will be unwavering.”
Also addressing participants, Economic and Social Council President Collen Vixen Kelapile (Botswana) said the Forum’s expert advice — as an advisory body to the Council — is crucial to highlighting the key issues affecting indigenous peoples.
He said the high-level political forum on sustainable development — to be held in July and feature the national reviews of 45 Member States — will offer a significant opportunity for indigenous peoples to showcase their traditional knowledge on biodiversity, climate change and environmental stewardship. He urged Member States to seek their participation, adding: “I look forward to your recommendations which should be built into the Council’s different platforms.”
Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs Liu Zhenmin — in a message delivered by Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs Maria-Francesca Spatolisano — stressed that indigenous peoples customarily claim and manage more than 50 per cent of the world’s land, yet only legally own 10 per cent of it. As a result, 40 per cent of the land surface — 5 billion hectares — remain vulnerable to land grabbing and environmental destruction. When indigenous communities resist these actions, they often face extreme reprisals.
He cited a 2020 analysis revealing that 331 human rights defenders were killed — 26 per cent of them specifically while defending indigenous people’s rights, describing these figures as “startling”. In the last year, United Nations entities have worked together to improve their response, he said, strengthening their engagement with country teams and seeking ways to enhance indigenous people’s participation in the Organization’s processes.
In other business, the Forum elected by acclamation Phoolman Chaudhary (Nepal), Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim (Chad), Anne Nuorgam (Finland), Geoffrey Roth (United States) and Aleksei Tsykarev (Russian Federation) as Vice-Chairs of the twenty-first session, along with Tove Søvndahl Gant (Denmark) as Rapporteur. It also adopted the provisional agenda for the twenty-first session (document E/C.19/2022/1) and its work programme, as orally revised ( E/C.19/2022/L.1/Rev.1)
In the afternoon, the Forum held thematic dialogues on the International Decade of Indigenous Languages, 2022–2032, in which representatives of indigenous peoples’ groups, Governments and United Nations entities reflected upon the impact of decades of exclusion of indigenous peoples from decisions affecting their lives and offered avenues for rectifying these injustices.
The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues will reconvene at 9 a.m. on Tuesday, 26 April, to continue its twenty-first session.
Interactive Dialogue
In the afternoon, the Forum held a thematic dialogue on the International Decade of Indigenous Languages, 2022–2032, in a hybrid in-person/virtual format, during which representatives of indigenous peoples’ groups, Governments and United Nations entities described success and challenges.
A speaker from the Native Youth Alliance was among several indigenous representatives to denounce rampant Government practices that set in motion decades of violent discrimination. Informing the Forum that he was stolen out his mother’s home as a child, he said that, at 67 years old, he can no longer speak his native Omaha language. “English is not my language,” he emphasized. “Give me a chance to get my language back. It was stolen from me.”
A speaker from the Assembly of First Nations, Canada, similarly denounced the genocidal policies across Turtle Island, which were designed to kill “the Indian in the child” by placing them in “residential schools” and forbidding them from speaking their language. Separated from their families, thousands of children died in these institutions and were buried without ceremony. Intergenerational trauma is evident today in children and adults who do not speak their native languages fluently. She called on Canada and other Governments to invest the same amount in rebuilding these languages as was spent on destroying them.
A speaker from the Fund for the Development of Indigenous Peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean warned that her region is confronting a linguistic emergency. Of its 560 languages, between 40-60 per cent are at risk of disappearance, due to racism and other factors, including transmission between generations and international standards on culture and linguistics rights.
A speaker from the Global Indigenous Youth Caucus described indigenous languages as the “underappreciated conduit” between ecological knowledge, biodiversity, planetary protection and indigenous community health. She pressed United Nations agencies to work with States to expand K-12 indigenous education, and the World Health Organization (WHO) to prioritize indigenous languages as a determinant of health, including for the planet.
Several indigenous speakers focused on solutions. A representative of the Indigenous Peoples of Africa Coordinating Committee, Botswana, which represents 35 organizations, said that there are more than 2,000 indigenous languages on the continent. Yet, post-independence, they are on the verge of being lost. However, the Amazigh language has been introduced into Morocco’s education system — a first in an African experience. Such initiatives are the only way to pass on languages from generation to the next.
The speaker from Global Home for Indigenous Peoples, an indigenous representative from the Tharu community in Nepal, said the role of Member States is critical in endorsing the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and in transforming its principles into practices that promote indigenous languages. However, he cautioned that that the uptick in indigenous children’s enrolment in primary and secondary school does not mean these children are being taught in their native language.
A representative of Cherokee Nation said his community is building a language centre with 14 programmes to advance the Cherokee language. “We must set real goals for the Decade to create and inspire more speakers,” he said.
Highlighting achievements, a speaker from the Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation said new textbooks have been published. The Government also has approved an educational committee on the graphic aspects of her language, while the President has adopted a decree modernizing the teaching of indigenous languages and established a federal institute.
A speaker from the United Confederation of Taino People likewise announced that the first Taino dictionary and grammar guide will be published later this year, helping to raise the visibility of the First Peoples of the Americas. He also highlighted a recently published phonetic English to Arawak dictionary as a success for the revitalization of indigenous languages
“Languages are about more than words, connecting people, communities and families, spanning distances and reflecting aspects of identity, culture, spirituality and self-determination, said Canada’s representative, one of several Governments to outline national initiatives. Canada is working with indigenous partners to develop a plan that reflects their vision of the International Decade, prioritizing the urgent need to revitalize and promote their languages, while acknowledging the distinct realities between and within First Nations, Innuit and Métis.
The delegate of Denmark said that the 2009 Act on Self-Government in Greenland established the Greenlandic language “Kalaallisut” as its official language. Through laws adopted by its Parliament, a language council and place names committee were established; both are served by a language secretariat. Kalaallisut is spoken by the majority of the 56,000 people of Greenland, and as such it is strong and vibrant.
The representative of Ukraine, a Crimean Tatar, said her country is being shelled by Russian bombs and her people are being killed, raped and tortured to death. For eight years, Crimea has suffered occupation by the Russian Federation. The Tatars are trying to survive, despite the ethnic cleansing and other crimes, and fighting with Ukraine for freedom and peace. The Russian Federation wants to eliminate Crimean Tatar, a severely endangered language, in order to purport the false narrative that Crimea is a native Russian land. In contrast, Ukraine returned the Crimean Tatar language and alphabet to Latin, which better reflects its roots, and adopted a 2022-2032 strategy for indigenous languages just hours before the unprovoked invasion on 24 February.
Mexico’s representative, speaking for the Group of Friends of Indigenous Peoples, called on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to work with both Governments and indigenous peoples themselves to identify tech companies willing to engage on using technologies for digital empowerment. Speaking in her national capacity, she highlighted the “Delimix” online platform, bringing together Governments, academic and community initiatives focused on indigenous languages.
In a similar vein, Venezuela’s delegate said that in her country, 43 indigenous peoples speak 36 languages, all of them recognized officially. Indigenous peoples have been excluded by the actions of colonial powers and Venezuela has carried out several actions to correct that injustice.
A representative of the European Union, in its capacity as observer, said there are more than 60 indigenous, regional or minority languages spoken by 40 million people in the bloc, representing a common home in which diversity is celebrated.
The representative of Finland, also speaking for Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, said language is vital for ensuring active engagement in public life. “Everyone should be able to use their own language in society, without fear of discrimination,” she said. There was an opportunity to save and strengthen indigenous peoples’ languages. The Global Action Plan gives great guidance on how to do this, she noted, encouraging States to develop regional and national action plans towards that goal.
New Zealand’s delegate called for drastically increased efforts to promote indigenous languages around the world, stressing that “Māori language is sacred and helps to define who we are as New Zealanders.” The Māori Language Petition is celebrating its fiftieth anniversary and the document is foundational to the current linguistic landscape. The Government will look to strengthen efforts to strengthen the language’s revitalization.
Rounding out the discussion, an official from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) — the Organization’s lead agency of the International Decade — said indigenous peoples represent a distinct group whose rights to promote their languages must be protected. Success hinges on indigenous peoples owning and advancing the agenda.
A representative of UNESCO introduced a Secretariat note on the “International Decade of Indigenous Languages, 2022-2032: Global Action Plan” (document E/C.19/2022/5). In addition, Sven-Erik Soosaar, Forum member from Estonia, introduced the Secretariat note on “Use of Indigenous Languages in Formal Education Systems in Latin America, Southern Africa and Northern Eurasia” (document E/C.19/2022/10).
Also speaking today were representatives of Peru, Guyana and Bolivia, as well as speakers from the following organizations: Tebtebba, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, National Confederation of Indigenous Women in Bolivia, and the International Indian Treaty Council.
Forum members from the Russian Federation, Bolivia and Estonia also spoke, as did Irma Pineda Santiago, Forum member from Mexico, who read a poem in Zapoteca language.
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TWENTY-FIRST SESSION, 3RD & 4TH MEETINGS (AM & PM)
Indigenous Peoples' Territories, Resources Still Being Seized, Exploited, Despite International Standards Guaranteeing Their Rights, Speakers Tell Permanent Forum

While international standards guarantee the rights of indigenous peoples to self-determination, territories and resources, these fundamental freedoms are trampled upon in the name of mining, logging, oil, gas exploration and even conservation deemed essential to national development, speakers told the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues today, laying out recommendations for transnational businesses to respect their traditional knowledge and inherent dignity.
More often than not, said Geoffrey Roth, Forum member from the United States, indigenous territories are seized, livelihoods are destroyed, and traditional knowledge, cultures and language are lost. “Combined, this erodes social bonds and whole identities.”
Mr. Roth, one of five Forum members presenting the findings of recent studies undertaken to understand and improve indigenous peoples’ participation in decisions affecting their lives, introduced the report “International Expert Group meeting on business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence, including free, prior and informed consent” (document E/C.19/2022/6), which met from 6-10 December 2021.
He stressed that the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is clear: article 32 outlines that States must obtain the free and informed consent of indigenous peoples prior to the approval of any project affecting their lands or resources. Article 4, meanwhile, states that indigenous peoples have the right to autonomy or self-governance in matters related to internal and local affairs. He also pointed to the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which outline rights for indigenous peoples and roles for both States and businesses in ensuring corporate responsibility.
Stressing that appropriate legislation, effective enforcement and indigenous peoples’ participation are crucial to achieving a balance between profit and respect for human rights and the environment, he said the expert meeting offered insight into how indigenous peoples are affected by business operations: Intellectual property law seldom recognizes their traditional knowledge or cultural expressions. Too often, indigenous peoples are met with reprisals, intimidation, violent attacks and even murder.
Against this backdrop, indigenous peoples are expanding their businesses and asserting intellectual property rights on their traditional knowledge, he said, noting that panellists praised Guatemala for its efforts to legally recognize Mayan designs and textiles and South Africa for its agreement with the Khoi and San people over royalty rights for use of the Rooibos plant. Benefit-sharing arrangements are being used in hydropower and geothermal projects in Asia, serving as other positive examples of self-determination and collective development.
Outlining recommendations, he urged States to regulate the activities of transnational corporations in international human rights law. He called on States and businesses alike to obtain the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples — considering them both stakeholders and rights bearers — address the drivers of attacks against indigenous human rights defenders and adopt a zero-tolerance approach to them in their operations, value chains and investments.
Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim , Forum member from Chad, introduced the study on “indigenous peoples and resource conflicts in the Sahel and the Congo Basin” (document E/C.19/2022/7), explaining that the Sahel includes Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Chad and Cameroon, while the Congo Basin is shared by Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Chad, Gabon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. Parts of Chad and Cameroon cross into both zones. Indigenous peoples in these areas are livestock herders and hunter-gatherers. Among them are the Batwa in the Great Lakes Region, the Yaka in north-west Congo and the Baka and Bagyele people in Cameroon, who are called pygmies and live in the tropical forests. Herder peoples include the Tuareg and the Mbororo people of Central Africa, the Congo Basin and the Sahel.
She said these communities live in harmony with their environments and have developed economic and cultural lives around the goods and services derived from them. However, conflicts have emerged in the Sahel over access to drinking water and water for agricultural use — a result of climate change. She pointed to the 90 per cent water loss of Lake Chad between 1960 and 2020 in this regard. Alongside this reality, agricultural drought has led to desertification and a lack of arable land, while agricultural development has destroyed other lands. Climate change also fosters internal and external migration, which becomes a source of conflict. In the Congo Basin, for example, laws protecting areas for hunter-gatherers were enacted without considering people’s cultural and social realities.
Next, Silje Karine Muotka, President of the Sámi Parliament of Norway, explained the situation of indigenous peoples of the Arctic, for whom “the green shift is taking place as green colonization”. Governments, industries and businesses have a long way to go when it comes to respecting indigenous peoples’ rights to existence and self-determination. She pointed to the Fosen case on the Norwegian side of her homeland, Sápmi, which is now home to the Roan and Storheia wind farms that were built without the free, prior and informed consent of the Sámi reindeer herders or their representative institution, the Sámi Parliament in Norway. Construction started in 2016, and by 2019, 151 turbines were producing electricity, covering 64 square kilometres of land, replete with 132 kilometres of roads, electrical substations and power lines.
She said Sámi reindeer herders moved the case through the court system until the Supreme Court’s Grand Chamber unanimously ruled in October 2021 that the licenses issued to Fosen Vind and Roan Vind by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy are invalid, as they violate the herders’ rights to enjoy their own culture, according to article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The expropriation of their property rights was also ruled invalid.
“The Sør-Fosen sijte and Nord-Fosen siida won the case,” she said. However, the plants continue to produce. Norway has not taken action to ensure that these violations will end nor told the Sámi people how they will work with them to ensure that herders enjoy their culture in this area. The Sámi Parliament has asked Fosen Vind and Roan Vind, as well as the owners of these companies, to comply with both Norwegian law and human rights and at the same time respect their own company ethics standards — “so far, without results,” she said. “I am asking for justice.”
Darío José Mejía Montalvo , Forum member from Colombia and Permanent Forum Chair, presented a study on “the rights of indigenous peoples in relation to the global energy mix” (document E/C.19/2022/9), stressing that for indigenous peoples, the distinction between energy, life and spirituality does not exist. “Our knowledge has not been taken into account,” he said. The current energy matrix reproduces colonialist models, leading to injustices against indigenous peoples at political, ecological and epistemological levels because authorities do not recognize their form of government.
“There is a lack of understanding about our land on the part of authorities when they take decisions,” he said. While they are focused on roads, hydroelectric stations and parking spots, indigenous peoples lack access to their basic needs, such as fishing. There has been no analysis of the damage that has been done. “We have to insist on [the] effective participation of indigenous peoples in energy transfers globally as well as within States,” he stressed, as the consequences of making these decisions “behind our backs” is so great it threatens survival.
Nanaia Mahuta , Minister for Foreign Affairs and Local Government of New Zealand, in an online presentation, underscored the importance of forging partnerships among indigenous peoples, civil society, Government and the private sector. She pointed to the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand’s founding document, and the partnership between the Government and the Māori people in this regard, stressing that “we need governance to be exercised in way that enables the self-determination of everyone, including Māori”.
She went on to say that the framework uses the Treaty to shape systems that respect Māori traditional knowledge. She also pointed to the inclusion of an indigenous chapter in the free trade agreement between New Zealand and the United Kingdom, stressing that the Government also stands ready to amplify the voices of indigenous peoples across the United Nations system.
In the ensuing discussion , representatives of indigenous peoples, Governments and United Nations entities continued their dialogue along the theme of “Indigenous peoples, business, autonomy and the human rights principles of due diligence, including free, prior and informed consent”, with many speakers describing harmful business practice.
The representative of the Sámi Parliament in Finland agreed that indigenous peoples bear the heavy environmental cost of extractive projects while reaping very few of the benefits. Political mobilization was essential to their grasping of any opportunities. In the European Arctic — traditional Sámi territory — “the colonial school still rules” in the destructive mindset of industry, while the switch to a green economy has increased pressures on the land. He pointed out that Europe’s biggest ore and copper mine is found in Sámi territory in Sweden, and that Sámi territory there and in Finland is the main gold supplier in Europe.
“We cannot afford to lose any more of our lands,” said the representative of the Sámi Council. For mining companies to make a reservation to an area of Sámi land is a mere formality in Finland’s legislation. For herders, receiving news that a reservation has been made on their lands is “like receiving a death threat: it means the future of your way of life is being questioned.” The Fosen case is emblematic of the urgent need to respect indigenous peoples’ rights from the outset of any project on their territories.
Many participants also drew attention to the decades of injustices against indigenous communities, including the speaker from the Assembly of First Nations, who said reconciliation with Canada has not been smooth or easy. She pointed to the recent recovery of children from unmarked graves on Turtle Island as paving the way for greater recognition. The key instrument on the road to truth and reconciliation is the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Canada’s Indian Act is in direct opposition to the Declaration. “This is irreconcilable and must be resolved,” she insisted.
The speaker from Asian Indigenous Peoples Pact said the 411 indigenous peoples estimated to live in Asia face political, cultural and social marginalization, as well as routine violation of their rights, while the speaker from the National Organization of Andean and Amazonian Indigenous Women urged the Forum to call on Peru to align its laws with International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 169 because “we are consulted after our rights have been violated”. Peru’s agreements and laws do not respect indigenous peoples’ right to consent, and authorities do not respect the findings of environmental impact studies, she stressed.
In that vein, several described the imbalanced power dynamics of working with States. The speaker from the Association of Indigenous Fulani Women of Chad similarly argued that indigenous peoples’ marginalization in Chad is due to the political and legal precarity of their rights. While they have a large part of the pastoral economy, their involvement in the commercialization of livestock is not seen in any statistical results. Their productivity is informal, due to public policies that limit their rights, and their nomadic existence excludes them from sharing in natural resources. She called on administrative authorities and traditional leaders to lead training programmes in conflict resolution and advocated for better national development planning.
The speaker from the Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation (RIPON) said that, although there is a tradition of self-governance within their communities, their communities must be confirmed by the Government. RIPON is represented in the Council to the President of the Russian Federation and has proposed various initiatives. A month ago, evaluation was conducted of its authority over territories and its special status. “However, we cannot say we are pleased with the contents of [the] draft law,” he said, noting that 30 of its organizations were blocked from traditional land use, equating to 10 per cent of the country’s entire land mass.
The speaker from the Congress of Aboriginal People said Canada’s Indian Act has led to terrible outcomes for Aboriginal people in the form of ill health, food insecurity, poverty, unsafe housing and homelessness. “We have been excluded from discussions that affect us and are often forced to go to court to uphold our rights,” he said. While Canada’s Prime Minister said he would fight for their rights and recognition, “he will not acknowledge us, nor will he accept any invitation to talk”. The Aboriginal people should not have to wait any longer.
In a “fervent appeal for redress”, the speaker from the Global Naga Forum said the struggle for and absence of self-determination has made economic development extremely difficult for the Naga people. He appealed to the Expert Mechanism and the Special Rapporteur to pressure India into repealing the Special Armed Forces Act, setting a timeline for the demilitarization of the Naga homeland and negotiating a peace accord in good faith.
Numerous Governments took the floor to outline their achievements, with Burundi’srepresentative stressing that his country’s Constitution’s recognition of the Batwa as an ethnic group opens opportunities for their claims of being full-fledged Burundians. The Constitution accords Batwa seats in Parliament and the Senate, she said, noting that one of every 15 ministers comes from the community, including herself. She also cited the building of homes for Batwa families, along with free primary education and the distribution of school kits to Batwa children.
Others pointed to solid legislative gains. The representative of Guatemala described the “996 law”, which is aligned with ILO Convention No. 169. He cited the example of the Phoenix mining company, which suspended its work in 2021 to conduct consultations with indigenous peoples through an inter-institutional body. Consensus was reached to continue the operations. Further, in 2017, the Constitutional Court approved a template for such consultations and until there is legislation, this is what will be applied.
The representative of Ecuador said that the 2008 Constitution recognizes his country as a pluri-national and cultural State and outlines the need for a participatory dialogue with indigenous peoples for the use of natural resources. He proposed that gross domestic product (GDP) of all States should measure the collective well-being of the environment. He also called for diversifying human and productive capital while preventing cultural loss.
The representative of Finland, also speaking for Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, pointed to a road map for increasing recognition of indigenous peoples in corporate commitments to human rights. A considerable number of business initiatives do include the respect for the rights of indigenous people.
The representative of South Africa said her country is engaged in a process to elaborate a legally binding instrument for transnational corporations to adhere to human rights, which “will go a long way” in providing effective legal remedies for the victims of grave rights violations by these entities. At the core of such abuse is a “total disregard for the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples”, she said.
Several delegates touted their countries’ adherence to ILO Convention No. 169, including Nepal’s representative, who noted that 123 languages are spoken as a mother tongue. Textbooks are published in 24 languages and 69 mother tongues have been used in primary schools. Nepal also provides monthly cash allowances to 10 endangered communities.
Germany’s representative announced that her country has ratified ILO Convention No. 169, which will come into force in 2022. Along similar lines, Spain’s representative highlighted his country’s “Defenders at Risk” programme, which hosts indigenous and Afro-descendent leaders.
Still other representatives took issue with the characterizations of their countries in Forum reports, with Indonesia’s delegate emphasizing that the concept of indigenous people does not apply to her country, as its entire population remains unchanged from colonial times. Indonesia is a multicultural, multi-ethnic nation that does not discriminate among its peoples. Multi-stakeholder consultations have been carried out during enactment of various laws and there is special autonomy in several provinces. She expressed regret that some have inserted armed separatist agendas against her country into the Forum’s discussions.
The representative of Ethiopia objected to the report’s claim that Ethiopia removed indigenous peoples from land without their prior consent or consultation during plans for a hydroelectric power plant. “Every design and implementation of development projects has been undertaken with necessary precautions and with relevant stakeholders,” she explained. The concept of indigenous people is ethnologically wrong. The classification does not apply to Ethiopia, as all Ethiopians are inhabitants of the ancient land.
China’s representative blamed centuries of colonial rule for the plundering of indigenous land and resources. She voiced concern that indigenous peoples in some Western countries face forcible eviction and contamination of their water from nuclear waste. She urged these countries to implement the Declaration and respect the principle of free, prior and informed consent.
The representative of the Russian Federation said his country is home to 193 peoples and that the Constitution accords a special legal category to 47 peoples living in 34 regions. Indigenous peoples face threats of a cross-border nature, he said, citing the “unused potential” of 2,000 indigenous economic areas and the Duma’s consideration of a draft law to improve them.
Representatives of United Nations entities also offered their perspectives, with the official from the International Labour Organization noting that if human rights are to be respected in business activities, States must put in place the requisite legislation and institutional frameworks. In most cases, however, this is not done. ILO is assisting States in building the legal and institutional frameworks needed to uphold the rights enshrined in Convention No. 169.
The representative of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) called for action from Governments, intergovernmental organizations and the private sector to apply the principle of free, prior and informed consent. IFAD has learned that dialogue and mutual recognition “go a long way” to improve the effectiveness of investments. She described updates to IFAD’s engagement with indigenous peoples and underscored the agency’s commitment to finance programmes that build on the identity, culture and knowledge of indigenous peoples
The representative of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) focused on bodily autonomy for indigenous women in deciding on the number, spacing and timing of their children. Indigenous women have been denied such choices, and in the most extreme cases, have been forced into sterilization under strict family planning programmes.
Anne Nuorgam, Forum member from Finland, said Finland has been slow to follow up on the decisions taken by its Supreme Court on cases involving indigenous peoples. She asked Ms. Muotka, President of the Sámi Parliament of Norway, about the reasons for the slow follow up, to which Ms. Muotka replied that it is of utmost importance that Nordic countries [Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden] follow up on high court rulings. “Ongoing human rights violations must come to an end,” she said, stressing that it is a joint venture to ensure that human rights are balanced according to international law. “I will not rest until the ongoing violations come to an end,” she stated.
Ms. Nuorgam later presented a discussion paper on “Indigenous peoples, autonomy and self-governance: outcomes of the regional dialogues”. She said the dialogues were organized to support the development of guiding principles and included the Inter-Agency Support Group on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues. They aimed to identify best practices related to autonomy and the potential scope for guiding principles on the matter.
Representatives of the following organizations also took part in the discussions: Chirapaq; Ngaati Wairere; Jamii Asilia Centre; National Coordinator of Indigenous Women — Mexico; Fund for the Development of Indigenous Peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean; Treaty Number Eight Territory; Nation of Hawai’i; Regional Association of Indigenous People of the North of the Kraznoyansk; National Congress for American Indians; Nunatu-Kavut Community Council; Rochun; Global Indigenous Youth Caucus; Amara Multidisciplinary Studies Centre; Entrepreneurship Indigenous Federation and Local Mexican Communities; Tsilhhot’in National Government; International Indigenous Committee of Russia; Native American Rights Fund; Arramat Project for Biodiversity Conservation; and Congress Mondial Amazigh.
Representatives of Guyana, Venezuela, Mexico, United States, Australia, Paraguay and Ukraine addressed the Forum in an observer capacity, as did speakers from the European Union and the Holy See.
Permanent Forum members from Australia and Nepal also made interventions.
The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues will reconvene at 3 p.m. on Wednesday, 27 April, to continue its twenty-first session.
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TWENTY-FIRST SESSION, 5TH MEETING (PM)
Indigenous Peoples Routinely Exposed to Toxic Substances, Their Lands, Waters Poisoned by Reckless Companies, Special Rapporteur Tells Permanent Forum

Indigenous peoples are routinely exposed to highly toxic substances left behind by reckless companies that poison their lands and waters with cyanide, mercury, lead and cadmium, the Special Rapporteur on the issue told the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues today, as participants engaged with three United Nations experts on ways to uphold their basic human rights on the international stage.
Marcos A. Orellana, Special Rapporteur on toxics and human rights, said extractive industries have left a legacy of severely contaminated sites on indigenous lands. Highly hazardous pesticides sprayed by the agro-industrial complex and irresponsible Governments trying to eradicate illegal crops “in what is really a self-destructive war against plants” reflect the alienation between humanity and nature.
“The list of toxic exposures on indigenous peoples is long,” he said, despite normative instruments like the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 169. Their exposure continues, even with the increasing recognition of key rights and protections, including free, prior and informed consent, as well as a clean, healthy and sustainable environment.
Highly hazardous pesticides should be phased out because they pose unacceptable harms to internationally accepted human rights, he continued. However, there is no instrument for such action. The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade has been paralyzed by the failure of its Conference of the Parties to list hazardous pesticides, despite the repeated advice of its scientific body.
He said the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Panel of Experts on Pesticide Management does not refer to indigenous peoples, while the Minamata Convention on Mercury permits the use of mercury in small-scale mining, arguing that miners are poor and must make a living. “No one has the right to harm another to make a living,” he emphasized, pointing out that mercury is among the most hazardous substances known to humans. “The environmental injustice of this is ostensible and it must come to an end.” Toxics are a form of violence against the land and its people, he said.
José Francisco Cali Tzay, Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, detailed his activities, noting that in May 2021, he provided expert testimony to the Inter-American Court on Human Rights in the Indigenous Maya Kaqchikel Peoples of Sumpango vs. Guatemala case. In March 2022, he testified at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in a case involving Peru. He also participated in discussions of the United Nations Inter-Agency Support Group on Indigenous Issues, and for the first time, addressed the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Heritage Committee on the nomination of heritage sites.
He said his report to the General Assembly will focus on protected areas and indigenous peoples’ rights, reviewing the ways resources are removed from indigenous lands and efforts to ensure cultural heritage protection. His annual report to the Human Rights Council meanwhile will focus on indigenous women as knowledge keepers, identify threats against them and make recommendations on protecting their ability to develop, apply and transmit knowledge.
Rounding out the panel, Megan Davis, Chair of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, said the Human Rights Council subsidiary body held its fourteenth session virtually in July 2021, during which it adopted a study on the rights of the indigenous child. The study showed that the capacity of indigenous peoples to meet their children’s needs depends on their ability to exercise the right to self-determination. Indigenous children are also at a higher risk of violence, exclusion and discrimination than their non-indigenous peers, due to poverty and other factors. The arrival of mining, which has led to the contamination of natural resources, has compounded the disparities indigenous children face due to structural discrimination and colonial legacies.
She recommended actions to mitigate the effects of climate change and attain the highest health standards, as well as measures to improve birth registration, reduce the over-representation of indigenous children in alternative care and justice systems, and improve access to primary and secondary education in indigenous languages. The Expert Mechanism’s annual report highlights the right to self-determination as the foundational right, without which civil, political economic and social rights are meaningless. It also describes the correlation between recognition of indigenous peoples and the extent to which States fulfil their right to self-determination. The greater the recognition, the more profound implementation of that right, she observed.
She added that the Expert Mechanism’s fifteenth session, to be held from 4‑8 July, will include a panel exploring the impact of development projects on indigenous women. A thematic study on treaties, agreements and other arrangements between indigenous peoples and States, discussed during a virtual seminar held on 29 November and from 1‑2 December 2021, will also be adopted.
In the ensuing interactive dialogue , representatives of indigenous organizations described a myriad of environmental conditions that impinge upon their rights to a life of health and dignity, with many calling on businesses to meaningfully engage with them to obtain their free, prior and informed consent on decisions and outcomes affecting their communities.
The speaker from the Guahan Coalition for Peace and Justice, noting that the Arctic is warming three times faster than the rest of the planet, described the challenge of combating colonial, industrial and corporate interests. In the Pacific, this manifests in “sustainability campaigns”, operating in tandem with militarization efforts to distract the public from the destructive activities of colonial forces. “Green colonialism violates indigenous rights to land and to free, prior and informed consent,” she stressed, adding it also interferes with traditional knowledge transmitted through daily activities. She recommended support for indigenous demilitarization efforts, pressing authorities to align their climate plans with the Convention on Biodiversity and ratify ILO Convention No. 169.
Similarly, the speaker from the Innuit Circumpolar Council welcomed the United Nations Environment Assembly decision to create a legally binding treaty on plastics, emphasizing that recognition of indigenous knowledge on global plastics management must be ensured. “States have the power to oblige companies to strictly comply with human rights,” he declared, noting that in Canada, hunters opposing mining activities have little time to respond.
Others spoke more broadly about discriminatory practices. The speaker from the Fund for the Development of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean voiced concern that 10 years after the creation of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, States, international organizations and businesses are still challenged to ensure that indigenous peoples participate broadly and effectively and that their views are considered.
The speaker from the Asian Indigenous Peoples Caucus said indigenous peoples in Asia are high on the list of targets for killings, arbitrary detention, intimidation and violence. Noting that attacks against indigenous women and human rights defenders have increased during the pandemic, she urged the Special Rapporteur and Expert Mechanism to facilitate discussions on the development of guiding principles for realizing the right to self-determination
The speaker from the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples said his organization is one of five in Canada