BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET HISTIOGRAPHY OF THE NATIVE POPULATION OF ALASKA OF THE RUSSIAN-AMERICAN PERIOD

A. V. Grinëv, translated by Richard L. Bland*

The Native population of Alaska for a long time attracted Russian researchers since this vast territory was at that time Russia’s only transoceanic colony, known today as “Russian America.” The first Russian works dedicated directly or indirectly to the Natives of Alaska belong to the end of the 18 th–beginning of the 19 th century. These are primarily the notes and journals of mariners, travelers, merchants, and missionaries who visited the Russian possessions in the New World or who lived there for some time. 1 All such works belong to important historical sources, often entirely unique.

In them is contained not only ethnographic information, but sometimes the methods of management and policy are described in relation to the different native groups. This theme is presented in even more detail in various documents of the Russian American period, for example, in the Nastavleniya (Instructions) of the eminent merchant G. I. Shelikhov to his deputy K. A. Samoilov of 4 May 1786, where a plan of subjugation of the Eskimos of Kodiak Island is described in detail, as well as policy in relation to other peoples of Alaska. 2

However, the object of our study is not a source overview but rather a scholarly historiography of the Soviet and post-Soviet period, which touched upon questions of history and the ethnography of Alaskan peoples (without drawing in works on linguistics, archaeology, population genetics, and physical anthropology because of their substantial specificity). In chronological regard, this article embraces works that examine various aspects of the traditional ethnography of Alaskan Natives and their history in the early colonial period, that is, in the period of Russian America.

In spite of the seeming simplicity of the theme its analysis in fact presents certain difficulties. In particular, these questions arise: What works must be selected from the entire available bibliographic corpus? Where is the boundary beyond which scholarly work can be characterized as ethnographic and not historic? Does it pay to consider works, in which one part of the material belongs to the Alaskan peoples, while the other to other North Americans or Siberians? What criteria are to be placed at the base of the classification?

It is obvious that an overview of Russian historiography based on the stated theme should be limited to the most significant kinds of scholarly publications. These should be monographs (or large essays), as well as parts of them and articles in academic journals and collections, leaving out of the equation scholarly theses and reports without a reference system, published in the materials of various conferences. It is more difficult to identify works on history and ethnography in which information about Alaskan Natives is interspersed with other data. This often concerns overviews and summary works in which the peoples of Alaska figure together with other Natives of the New and Old World, as, for example, in two articles by I. S. Gurvich and Yu. P. Averkieva, published in 1981. 3 An analogous problem arises with respect to separate parts (chapters or paragraphs) and individual or collective monographs. Thus, in the book by E. M. Meletinskii about the Paleoasiatic mythological epic about Raven there are several chapters in which Alaskan Natives figure. 4 But one of them deals, in addition to the Eskimos and Aleuts, the Evenk, Yukagir, and Asian Eskimos. In another chapter most of the text is dedicated to an analysis of myths about Raven among the Tlingit Indians, with drawing in a small amount of analogous material about other Indians of the Northwest Coast of America outside the bounds of Alaska. And only one chapter (“Myths about Raven among the Northern Athapaskans and Eyak”) is strictly adequate for the criteria of this article. On the whole, it makes sense not to consider works in which the material about the Native residents of Alaska comprise less than a half of their total volume. Correspondingly, of three chapters in E. M. Meletinskii’s monograph it pays to note only the last two, but to exclude his later article on this theme 5 and the above-mentioned works of I. S. Gurvich and Yu. P. Averkieva, as well as the monograph of the latter on slavery among the Indians of North America. 6

A separate question arises with works dedicated to museum materials and collections. It is evident that it is necessary to consider only those works in which more than 50% occupies information about Alaskan Natives and not about collectors of objects of their material culture, 7 about problems of forming museum collections, organization of exhibits, and so on. On the other hand, it evidently makes sense to include into bibliographic analysis thematic sketch books of museum collections with introductory articles and scholarly commentary.

Also, the question regarding ethnohistorical works is not a simple one. The fact is that many works discuss the Native residents of Alaska, where general questions of Russian colonization are examined, discuss missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the distant eastern boundaries of the Empire, describe Russian geographic discoveries, and so on. However, in all such works the Alaskan Natives usually figure only as the secondary “background” and therefore it is hardly worth including these works in our bibliographic overview. Excluded from this general rule are works where materials about the relationships of the new arrivals with the Native residents embrace no less than 50% of the total volume of text.

As many problems arise with classification. Bibliographic overviews or historiographic articles/essays are usually created based on a list of authors (in alphabetic or thematic order), or corresponding to a specific theme. However, classification can also be formed based on other criteria (or combinations of them): based on time and place of publication, based on peoples, based on specialization and character of the publications (summary works, works about a group of people or about a single ethnos/ethnic group, works on ethnohistory, on specific ethnic aspects of material and spiritual culture, and so on). Depending on the selected criteria it is possible to obtain various statistical materials and reduce them for convenience and clarity into a few tables or graphs. For qualitative assessment of the selected statistical material the following served as the main basic criteria: authors and their works, the Native peoples of Alaska, and the works dedicated to them, and finally, the thematic of the last. The results were summarized in three tables (see below).

In doing this the chief bibliometric source used was a list of scholarly literature, including 140 works of 29 authors. Most of them are representatives of metropolitan scholarship, which is entirely understandable since the primary sources of information (archives, libraries, museums) on Alaskan Natives in Russia have been traditionally concentrated in Moscow and Leningrad/St. Petersburg. Most authors wrote from one to three works, and specialists whose works about peoples of Alaska number more than five make up less than a third—a total of six people (see Table 1). The bulk of the works is represented by scholarly articles in various journals and collections, as well as chapters of monographic collections. Relatively few monographs and essays comparable to them in volume on the Native residents of Alaska have been published—a total of 14 (including three catalogs of collections in the Kunstkamera)—10% of the total number of works. Part of them is dedicated to individual peoples (Tlingit, Aleuts), the rest to several Alaskan ethnic groups (Athapaskans, Eskimos, and Aleuts, and Tlingit and Haida).

If attention is turned to the years of publication, the bulk of the works on the history and ethnography of Alaskan Natives was published in the last three decades, which probably reflects a general rise in scholarship connected with the development of computer technology and the Internet that have significantly simplified and sped up collection, developing, editing, and publication of scholarly material. It is impossible not to note here that the current policy of the state also rendered noticeable influence on the number, dynamics, and scope of work. From the very beginning of the Soviet period the theme of history and ethnography of native residents of Alaska was on the distant periphery of attention of historical scholarship in the USSR, which was occupied mainly by the study of the class struggle of the working class, the revolution of 1917, Communist movement in the world, and similar subjects. Therefore, during the Second World War publications on the history and ethnography of the natives of Russian America could literally be counted as isolates (see Table 1). Moreover, occupation by an American theme brought on suspicion of the Soviet authorities and during the reign of Stalin could lead to political repression. This occurred with A. Yu. Averkieva—student of the well-known American ethnographer Franz Boas—who in 1947 was imprisoned in Stalin’s camps. 8 And though after the death of Stalin the threat of repression passed, nevertheless, not all the problems of the history and ethnography of the Aleuts, Indians, and Eskimos of Alaska could be freely studied and discussed by Soviet researchers. This primarily concerned relationships of natives with new arrivals from Russia. For example, still in 1985 the author of these lines was denied publication of an article about an uprising of the Tlingit Indians against the Russians in 1802. In this there was nothing remarkable, since the policy of the Soviet authorities was built on silence about conflicts between the native residents of Siberia, the Caucasus, and America with the Russians in light of the support of the USSR in the anti-colonial struggle during the post-war period. 9 Only after the fall of power of the Communist Party did Russian scholars obtain the possibility to freely publish their works on ethnohistorical themes, which led to a sharp increase in the publication stream from the beginning of the 1990s.

Table 1

Author

Year of Publication

Number

Books* & Large Essays

Articles, Chapters of Monographs

People

Theme

Avdeev, A. D.

1959

1

1

Aleuts

mc**, sc

Averkieva, Yu. P.

1960-1978

5

2

3

Tlingit

ea, mc, sc, so

Artem’ev, A. P.

1994-1999

3

3

Tlingit,

Athapaskans

eh

Beloglazova, S. B.

2002

1

1

Alutiiq

ea, mc, sc, so

Vashchenko, A. V.

2009

1

1

Alaskan Natives

sc

Vdovin, I. S.

1968

1

1

Aleuts

eh

Gorbacheva, V. A., Lyapunova, R. G.

1985

1

1

Aleuts

mc

Grinëv, A. V.

1986-2016

25

1

24

Alaskan Natives

e, ea, eh, mc, sc, so

Grinëv, A. V., Makarova, R. V.

1997

1

1

Aleuts

eh

Dzeniskevich, G. I.

1975-2001

15

1

14

Athapaskans, Tlingit

e, ea, eh, mc, musc, sc, so

Zibert, E. V.

1967

1

1

Athapaskans

musc

Zorin, A. V.

1994-2016

18

2

16

Athapaskans, Tlingit

eh

Ivanov, S. V.

1949

2

2

Aleuts,

Eskimos

musc

Istomin, A. A.

1985-1998

2

2

Tlingit, Alutiiq

eh

Kliment, Metropolitan (Kapalin, G. M)

2010 lang="RU" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>-2013

lang="RU" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>2

lang="RU" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>2

Tlingit

eh, sc

Korsun, S. A.

2002-2015

20

4***

16

Alaskan Natives

ea, eh, mc, musc, sc, so

Kocheshkov, N. V.

1998

1

1

Aleuts,

Eskimos

sc

Lyapunova, R. G.

1963-1998

19

3

16

Aleuts, Kad’yak

e, ea, eh, mc, musc, sc, so

Meletinskii, E. M.

1979

2

2

Athapaskans, Eyak, Tlingit

sc

* Individual chapters or large paragraphs of authored or collected monographs are assigned to the category of articles.

** Abbreviations: ea—economic activity and socioeconomic relations; e—ecology; eh—ethnic history; ma—military affairs and armament; mc—material culture (tools for work and everyday life, dwellings, clothing, food); musc—museum collections; p—power relations; sc—spiritual culture (including religion, folklore, and art); so—social organization, structure, and social relations.

*** Including three catalogs of collections in the Kunstkamera.


Table 1 (cont.)

Okladnikova, E. A.

1996-2001

4

4

Alaskan Natives

eh, mc, musc, sc, so

Piterskaya, E. S.

2007-2008

2

2

Alaskan Natives

eh, p, sc

Polevoi, B. P., Okladnikova, E. A.

1994

1

1

Alaskan Natives

eh

Razumovskaya, R. S.

1967-1968

2

2

Tlingit

mc, musc

Ratner-Shternberg, S. A.

1927-1930

3

3

Tlingit

mc, sc, musc

Stepanova, M. V.

1949

1

1

Eskimoss

mc

Trainin, G. A., Stepanova, M. V., Lyapunova, R. G.

1959

1

1

Aleuts

ea, eh, mc, sc, so

Trufanov, I. P.

1967

1

1

Denaina

ma

Fainberg, L. A.

1955-1971

3

1

2

Aleuts, Eskimoss

ea, eh, so

Fradkin, E. K.

1985

1

1

Tlingit

sc

Yakimov, O. D.

1998

1

1

Alaskan Natives

eh, sc

Not only the dynamics of publication, but also “ethnic representation” of the Native peoples of Alaska in Russian historiography looks very uneven (see Table 2). The Tlingit Indians retain absolute precedence—43 works are dedicated to them. In second place with a noticeable margin are the Aleuts (28 publications). Half as popular among Russian specialists are the Athapaskans of Alaska. Somewhat yielding to them are the Eskimos, among whom the Alutiiq—Natives of Kodiak Island and its vicinity (including the Chugach)—occupy the leading position. A total of only two or three works are dedicated to some Native peoples (Denaina, Ahtna, Eyak), and many groups are not represented at all by individual publications (for example, the Kutchin/Gwich’in, Kaigani Haida, or Inupiat Eskimos) and in the best case figure only in overviews or summary works together with other Native peoples of Alaska. Such inequality of “ethnic representation” is explained in large part by the fact that the primary bulk of written sources and museum materials belong to those ethnic groups with whom the Russians most intensively interacted in the 18 th–19 th century, and these were in first order the Aleuts, southern Eskimos, Denaina and Ahtna Athapaskans, and the Tlingit. Relatively constant contacts with northern groups of Eskimos and Indians began only at the end of the 1810s when the Russian-American Company, governing Alaska, began its trading operations in the basins of the Nushagak, Kuskokwim, and Yukon rivers, as well as in the region of Bering Strait. In this connection, somewhat surprising is the lack of large works (monographs and large essays) on the Alutiiq Eskimos, with whom among the Russians had long and very intensive contacts, and about whom there is an extensive range of archival and published sources. In this regard they are much less fortunate than the Aleuts and Tlingit, about whom several monographs have been written. 10

Table 2

Peoples

Number of Works

Monographs

Articles & Monograph Chapters

Themes

1. Aleuts

28

4

24

e,* ea, eh, mc, musc, sc, so

2. Alaskan Eskimoss

2

2

ea, eh, mc, musc, sc, so

2.1. Inupiat (Northern Eskimoss)

2.2. Yupik (Central Eskimoss)

2.3. Alutiiq (Southern Eskimoss)

9

1

8

ea, mc, musc, sc, so

3. Athapaskan Indians

8

1

7

ea, eh, mc, musc, sc, so

3.1. Ahtna (Ahtena, Atna)

3

3

eh

3.2. Denaina (Tanaina)

3

3

ea, eh, ma, mc, musc, sc, so

3.3. Ingalik (Deg-Hit’an)

3.4. Kolchan (Upper Kuskokwim)

3.5. Koyukon

3.6. Kutchin (Gwich’in)

3.7. Tanana

3.8. Holikachuk

4. Eyak

2

2

eh

5. Tlingit

43

6

37

e, ea, eh, ma, mc, musc, sc, so

6. Kaigani Haida

7. Natives of Alaska on the whole or several Native groups

43

2

lang="RU" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>41

e, ea, eh, ma, mc, musc, sc, so

* See Abbreviations from Table 1.

Concerning the theme of works by Soviet/Russian specialists, a very mixed picture is observed here as well (see Table 3). Among the works of Russian authors, works on ethnohistory unquestionably dominate, comprising 30% of the total number of works. Scholarly publications connected with museum collections are numerically less than half so many (12.5%), and works on general problems of the ethnography of individual peoples or groups of peoples, as well as dedicated to problems of social organization of Alaskan Natives, amount to 8.7% and 8%, respectively. The remaining themes were and are even less popular in Russian historiography (religious aspects, art, folklore and mythology, and so on). Some problems have been reflected on the pages of the works of Soviet/Russian scholars only as secondary subjects, usually in large works of a synthesizing character (traditional dwellings and food, the problem of family relations, and some other themes). On the other hand, represented very fittingly are the old museum collections connected with the peoples of Alaska that have recently been newly described and published by the well-known St. Petersburg specialist S. A. Korsun, who has already published three fundamental catalogs of collections in the Kunstkamera, and now prepares the next similar volume. 11

Table 3

Theme

Monographs

Monograph Chapters, Articles, and Reports

Total Number of Publications

Common problems of traditional ethnography of Alaska natives in general

1

1

Common problems of ethnography of individual peoples and groups of people

4

8

12

Ecology

2

2

Economic activities

5

5

Socioeconomic relations

2

2

Warfare

Material culture in general

1

1

Tools and transportation

4

4

Objects of everyday life

3

3

Armament

2

2

Dwellings

Clothing and headwear

5

5

Ornamentation

5

5

Food products and drinks

1

1

Museum ethnographic collections

4

13

17

Social organization and structure, social groups

3

8

11

Family relations

Power relations

1

1

Spiritual culture in general

Religion

lang="RU" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>10

lang="RU" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>10

Celebrations and rituals

5

5

Folklore and mythology

6

6

Ethnonymy and onomatology

3

3

Art

7

7

Ethnic history

3

35

38

Thus, the bibliometric research conducted permits identifying achievements and certain lacunae in the study of the Native population of Alaska and outlining some directions for further scholarly research. For example, the need for writing a large synthesizing monograph about the Alutiiq Eskimos is long overdue, 12 and what is more, there are rather many original Russian sources dedicated to them. Many other Alaskan peoples also need investigation in greater detail (especially some groups of Athapaskans and Eskimos). Possibly the time has come for writing a fundamental summarizing work about all the native peoples of this huge region, taking into account all the presently accumulated vast historiographic material. In addition, the bibliometric information obtained points to the need to draw attention of Russian scholars to several aspects of traditional ethnography of the Native residents of Alaska, who up to now have been outside the field of their scholarly interests. For example, in Soviet and Russian ethnographic works such important aspects as family and marital relations are poorly represented. On the whole, bibliometric analysis has demonstrated a rather broad spectrum of possibilities for reviewing the current state of Russian historiography and possible prospects for its further development. In addition, analysis of the historiography permits an indirect method of judging the influence of policy of the state on the state of scholarship and scholarly research. Without knowledge of policies it is impossible to understand and evaluate many nuances of Russian historiography.

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Grinëv, A. V. “Ob etnonime ‘kóloshi’” [About the Ethnonym “Kóloshi”], Sovetskaya etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography] 1 (1986), 104–108.

Grinëv, A. V. “Tovaroobmen mezhdu indeitsami tlinkitami i atapaskami Skalistykh gor v XIX v.” [Barter among the Tlingit and Athapaskan Indians of the Rocky Mountains in the 19 th Century], Sovetskaya etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography] 5 (1986), 113–122.

Grinëv, A. V. “Godovoi khozyaistvennyi tsikl tlinkitov” [The Annual Economic Cycle of the Tlingit], Ekologiya amerikanskikh indeitsev i eskimosov [Ecology of the American Indians and Eskimos] (Moscow: Nauka, 1988), 117–124.

Grinëv, A. V. “Indeitsy eyaki i sud’ba russkogo poseleniya v Yakutate” [The Eyak Indians and the Fate of the Russian Settlement at Yakutat], Sovetskaya etnografiya 5 (1988), 110–120.

Grinëv, A. V. “Lichnye imena indeitsev Tlinkitov” [Personal Names of the Tlingit Indians], Sovetskaya etnografiya 5 (1990), 132–141.

Grinëv, A. V. Indeitsy tlinkity v period Russkoi Ameriki (1741–1867 gg.) [The Tlingit Indians during the Russian American Period (1741–1867)] (Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1991).

Grinëv, A. V. “Sravnitel’nyi analiz struktur sotsial’noi organizatsii indeitsev tlinkitov i minangkabau Sumatry” [Comparative Analysis of the Structure of Social Organization of the Tlingit Indians and the Minangkabau of Sumatra], Etnicheskie faktory v zhizni obshchestva [Ethnic Factors in the Life of Society] (Moscow, 1991), 126–138.

Grinëv, A. V. “Na beregakh Mednoi reki: indeitsy atna i russkie v 1783–1867 gg.” [On the Banks of the Copper River: The Ahtna Indians and the Russians in 1783–1867], Amerika posle Kolumba: vzaimodeistvie dvukh mirov [America after Columbus: The Interaction of Two Worlds] (Moscow, 1992), 47–64.

Grinëv, A. V. “Indeitsy eyaki v period Russkoi Ameriki” [The Eyak Indians during the Russian American Period], Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 5 (1993), 73–83.

Grinëv, A. V. “Prestizhnyi totemizm u indeitsev khaida, tlinkitov i tsimshian” [Prestige Totemism among the Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian Indians]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 4 (1995), 115–125.

Grinëv, A. V. “Bitvy za Sitkhu i padenie Yakutata” [The Battle of Sitka and Fall of Yakutat], Istoriya Russkoi Ameriki (1732–1867)], vol. 2, Deyatel’nost’ Rossiisko-Amerikanskoi kompanii (1799–1825) [The Activities of the Russian-American Company (1799–1825)], edited by N. N. Bolkhovitinov (Moscow, 1999), 53–83.

Grinëv, A. V. “Russkaya Amerika v 1850-e gg.: RAK i Krymskaya voina” [Russian America in the 1850s: The Russian-American Company and the Crimean War], Istoriya Russkoi Ameriki (1732–1867) [The History of Russian America (1732–1867)], vol. 3 of Russkaya Amerika: ot zenita k zakatu (1825–1867) [Russian America: From Zenith to Decline (1825–1867)], edited by N. N. Bolkhovitinov (Moscow, 1999), 328–338.

Grinëv, A. V. “Tuzemtsy Alyaski, russkie promyshlenniki i Rossiisko-Amerikanskaya kompaniya: sistema ekonomicheskikh otnoshenii” [Natives of Alaska, Russian Promyshlenniki, and the Russian-American Company: System of Economic Relations]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 3 (2000), 74–88.

Grinëv, A. V. “Russko-tlinkitskii konflikt 1818 g. i ego razreshenie” [The Russian-Tlingit Conflict of 1818 and Its Resolution], Russkaya Amerika i Dal’nii Vostok (Konets XVIII v.–1867 g.). K 200-letiyu obrazovaniya Rossiisko-Amerikanskoi kompanii. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii (Vladivostok, 11–13 oktyabrya 1999 g.) [Russian America and the Far East (End of the 18 th century–1867). On the 200 th Year of the Formation of the Russian-American Company. Materials of the International Conference (Vladivostok, 11–13 October 1999)] (Vladivostok, 2001), 165–170.

Grinëv, A. V. “Tuzemtsy-kayury v Russkoi Amerike” [Native Kayury in Russian America], Istoriya i semiotika indeiskikh kul’tur Ameriki [The History and Semiotics of the Indian Cultures of America] (Moscow, 2002), 464–477.

Grinёv, A. V. “Tuzemtsy-amanaty v Russkoi Amerike” [Native Amanaty in Russian America], Klio 4 (2003), 128–142.

Grinëv, A. V. “Kharakter vzaimootnoshenii russkikh kolonizatorov i aborigenov Alyaski” [The Character of Relations between the Russian Colonizers and the Natives of Alaska]. Voprosy istorii 8 (2003), 96–111.

Grinëv, A. V. “K voprosu o mekhanizmakh podderzhaniya vlasti: donoschiki i shpiony sredi tuzemtsev Russkoi Ameriki” [On the Question of Mechanisms for Supporting Authority: Denouncers and Spies among the Natives of Russian America], Vlast’ v aborigennoi Amerike [Power in Aboriginal America] (Moscow, 2006), 575–591.

Grinëv, A. V. “Kul’turnye zaimstvovaniya russkikh u tuzemtsev Alyaski v XVIII–XIX vekakh” [Cultural Borrowing of Russians from the Natives of Alaska in the 18 th–19 th Centuries], Gumanitarnye problemy sovremennoi tsivilizatsii: VI Mezhdunarodnye Likhachevskie nauchnye chteniya, 26–27 maya 2006 goda [Humanitarian Problems of Modern Civilization: The 6 th International Likhachev Scholarly Readings, 26–27 May 2006] (St. Petersburg, 2006), 215–218.

Grinëv, A. V. “Russkie nagradnye medali dlya tuzemtsev Alyaski” [Russian Award Medals for Natives of Alaska], Klio 2 (2006), 109–120.

Grinëv, A. V. “Problema rasprostraneniya p’yanstva sredi tuzemtsev Russkoi Ameriki” [The Problem of the Spread of Drunkenness among the Natives of Russian America]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 1 (2010), 131–141.

Grinëv, A. V. “Tuzemtsy-tolmachi v Russkoi Amerike” [Native Interpreters in Russian America]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 6 (2012), 154–166.

Grinëv, A. V. “Bogatstvo i ego aspekty u tuzemtsev Russkoi Ameriki” [Wealth and Its Aspects among the Natives of Russian America], Bogatstvo i prestizh v traditsionnoi kul’ture: Materialy Trinadtsatykh Sankt-Peterburgskikh etnograficheskikh chtenii [Wealth and Prestige in Traditional Culture: Materials of the Thirteenth St. Petersburg Ethnographic Readings] (St. Petersburg, 2014), 174–178.

Grinëv, A. V. “Traditsionnoe rybolovstvo u tuzemtsev Alyaski (po materialam otechestvennykh i zarubezhnykh istochnikov)” [Traditional Fishing among the Natives of Alaska (Based on Materials of Russian and Foreign Sources)], Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 1 (2015), 120–136.

Grinëv, A. V. “Spetsifica tovaroobmena russkikh s tuzemtsami Alyaski, 1741–1867 gg.  [The Dynamics of Barter between the Russian and the Alaskan Natives, 1741–1867], Antropologicheskii forum [Anthropological Forum] 2 (2016), 66–98

Grinëv, A. V., and R. V. Makarova, “Promyslovoe osvoenie Aleutskikh o-vov russkimi promyshlennikami (1743–1783). Vzaimootnosheniya s aleutami i eskimosami” [Opening Up Hunting in the Aleutian Islands by Russian Promyshlenniki (1743–1783). Interactions with Aleuts and Eskimos], Istoriya Russkoi Ameriki (1732–1867) [The History of Russian America (1732–1867)], vol. 1 of Osnovanie Russkoi Ameriki (1732 –1799) [The Founding of Russian America (1732–1799)], edited by N. N. Bolkhovitinov (Moscow, 1997), 85–90.

Istomin, A. A. “Russko-tlinkitskie kontakty (XVIII–XIX vv.)” [Russian-Tlingit Contacts (18 th–19 th Centuries)], Istoricheskie sud’by amerikanskikh indeitsev. Problemy indeanistiki [The Historical Fortunes of the American Indians. Problems of Indian Studies] (Moscow, 1985), 146–154.

Istomin, A. A. “Nachalo sozdaniya ‘obshchikh selenii’ na ostrove Kad’yak v Russkoi Amerike (1839–1842 gg.)” [The Beginning of Creation of “Common Villages” on Kodiak Island in Russian America (1839–1842)], Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review] 5 (1998), 108–123.

Ivanov, S. V. “O znachenii dvukh unikal’nykh zhenskikh statuetok amerikanskikh eskimosov” [On the Significance of Two Unique Female Statuettes of the American Eskimos], Sb. MAE [Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XI (1949), 162–170.

Ivanov, S. V. “Sidyachie chelovecheskie figurki v skul’pture aleutov” [Sitting Human Figurines in the Sculpture of the Aleuts], Sb. MAE [Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XII (1949), 195–212.

Kapalin, G. M. (Kliment, Mitropolit), “Rasprostranenie russkoi dukhovnoi kul’tury sredi indeitsev tlinkitov v period Russkoi Ameriki” [The Spread of Russian Spiritual Culture among the Tlingit Indians during the Russian-American Period], Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Tyumen State University] 1 (2010), 119–126.

Kocheshkov, N. V. “Traditsionnoe iskusstvo eskimosov i aleutov” [Traditional Art of the Eskimos and Aleuts], Istoriko-kul’turnye svyazi mezhdu korennym naseleniem Tikhookeanskogo poberezh’ya severo-zapadnoi Ameriki i severo-vostochnoi Azii. K 100-letiyu Dzhezupovskoi Severo-tikhookeanskoi ekspeditsii. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii (Vladivostok, 1–5 aprelya 1998 g.) [Historical-Cultural Connections between the Native Population of the Pacific Ocean Shore of Northwestern America and Northeastern Asia. On the 100 th Year of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Materials for the International Conference (Vladivostok, 1–5 April 1998)] (Vladivostok, 1998), 51–75.

Korsun, S. A. “Vklad I. E. Veniaminova v izuchenie tlinkitov (missionerskaya i nauchnaya deyatel’nost’)” [Contribution of I. E. Veniaminov to the Study of the Tlingit (Missionary and Scientific Activities)]. Nauchnyi vestnik. Aktual’nye problemy arkheologii i etnologii Yamala [Science Bulletin. Problems of Current Interest in the Archaeology and Ethnology of Yamal] 9 (Salekhard, 2002), 76–84.

Korsun, S. A. “Severoamerikanskaya kollektsiya MAE uchastnikov pervoi russkoi krugosvetnoi ekspeditsii” [The North American Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of Members of the First Russian Round-the-World Expedition], Radlovskie chteniya 2002. Materialy godichnoi nauchnoi sessii MAE RAN [Radlovskie Readings, 2002. Materials of the Annual Scholarly Session of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences] (St. Petersburg, 2002), 41–46.

Korsun, S. A. “Sobranie I. G. Voznesenskogo po indeitsam Severo-Zapadnogo poberezh’ya” [The Collection of I. G. Voznesenskii from the Indians of the Northwest Coast], Radlovskie chteniya 2002. Materialy godichnoi nauchnoi sessii MAE RAN [Radlovskie Readings, 2002. Materials of the Annual Scholarly Session of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences] (St. Petersburg, 2002), 46–53.

Korsun, S. A. “Kollektsiya uchastnikov ekspeditsii M. N. Vasil’eva – G. S. Shishmareva po narodam Russkoi Ameriki v fondakh MAE RAN” [The Collection of Members of the M. N. Vasil’ev – G. S. Shishmarev Expedition from Peoples of Russian America in the Repositories of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences], Rossiiskaya nauka o cheloveke: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 20–23 marta 2003 g. [Russian Science about Man: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Materials for the International Scholarly Conference, 20–23 March 2003], issue 2 (St. Petersburg, 2003), 62–68.

Korsun, S. A. “Aleutskie toeny: (Iz rannei istorii Russkoi Ameriki)” [Aleut Toens: (From the Early History of Russian America)], Muzeinye kollektsii i nauchnye issledovaniya: Materialy godichnoi nauchnoi sessii MAE RAN 2000 goda [Museum Collections and Scholarly Research: Materials for the Annual Scholarly Sessions of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences], edited by Yu. K. Chistov. Sb. MAE, vol. XLIX (St. Petersburg, 2004), 136–150.

Korsun, S. A. “O skhodnykh elementakh v kul’turakh narodov Sibiri i Alyaski” [About Similar Elements in the Cultures of Peoples of Siberia and Alaska], Kur’er Petrovskoi Kunstkamery [Courier of Peter’s Kunstkamera], issue 10–11 (2004), 27–38.

Korsun, S. A. “Okhotnich’i golovnye ubory tikhookeanskikh eskimosov s izobrazheniem tyulenya” [Hunting Headgear of the Pacific Eskimos with an Image of a Seal], Kur’er Petrovskoi Kunstkamery [Courier of Peter’s Kunstkamera], issue 10–11 (2004), 99–110.

Korsun, S. A. “Kul’tura indeitsev severo-zapadnogo poberezh’ya Severnoi Ameriki v kollektsiyakh MAE” [The Culture of the Indians of the Northwest Coast of North America in the Collections of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], Aborigeny Ameriki: predmety i predstavleniya. Sb. MAE [Natives of America: Objects and Ideas. Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. L (St. Petersburg, 2005), 190–225.

Korsun, S. A. “Sobranie MAE po narodam Russkoi Ameriki: istoriya formirovaniya i dokumental’naya atributsiya” [Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography from Peoples of Russian America: The History of the Formation and Documentary Attribute], Aborigeny Ameriki: predmety i predstavleniya. Sb. MAE [Natives of America: Objects and Ideas. Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. L (St. Petersburg, 2005), 59–189.

Korsun, S. A. “Rol’ aleutskikh toenov v mezhetnicheskikh kontaktakh s russkimi v XVIII–nachale XIX veka” [The Role of Aleut Toeny in Inter-Ethnic Contacts with Russians in the 18 th–Beginning of the 19 th Century], Vlast’ v aborigennoi Amerike [Governance in Aboriginal America] (Moscow, 2006), 545–574.

Korsun, S. A. “Traditsionnyi pokhoronnyi obryad indeitsev tlinkitov” [The Traditional Mortuary Rite of the Tlingit Indians], Radlovskii sbornik: Nauchnye issledovaniya i muzeinye proekty MAE RAN v 2006 g. [The Radlovskii Bulletin. Scholarly Investigations and Museum Projects of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2006], edited by Yu. K. Chistov and E. A. Mikhailova (St. Petersburg, 2007), 115–121.

Korsun, S. A. “Muzykal’nye instrumenty tlinkitov v kollektsii MAE” [Musical Instruments of the Tlingit in the Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], Radlovskii sbornik: Nauchnye issledovaniya i muzeinye proekty MAE RAN v 2007 g. [The Radlovskii Bulletin. Scholarly Investigations and Museum Projects of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2007], edited by Yu. K. Chistov and M. A. Rubtsova (St. Petersburg, 2008), 48–52.

Korsun, S. A. “Etnograficheskaya kollektsiya L. A. Zagoskina v MAE” [The Ethnographic Collection of L. A. Zagoskin in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], Russkii puteshestvennik i obshchestvennyi deyatel’ Lavrentii Zagoskin (k 200-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya). Issledovaniya i materialy [Russian Traveler and Public Figure Lavrentii Zagoskin (On the 200 th Year of His Birth). Research and Materials], edited by L. V. Chekurin (Ryazan’, 2008), 173–202.

Korsun, S. A. “Pogrebal’nyi obryad tlinkitov v kontekste drevnikh aziatsko-amerikanskikh svyazei” [The Burial Ceremony of the Tlingit in the Context of Ancient Asian-American Connections], Sibirskii sbornik—1: Pogrebal’nyi obryad narodov Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. Kniga II [Siberian Collection—1: Burial Ceremony of the Peoples of Siberia and Adjacent Territories. Book II], edited by L. P. Pavlinskaya (St. Petersburg, 2009), 211–216.

Korsun, S. A. “Pogrebal’nyi obryad v sisteme miroustroistva tlinkitov [Burial Ceremony in the System of World Order of the Tlingit], Ot bytiya k inobytiyu: Fol’klor i pogrebal’nyi ritual v traditsionnykh kul’turakh Sibiri i Ameriki [From Being to Otherness: Folklore and Burial Ritual in the Traditional Cultures of Siberia and America], edited by Yu. E. Berezkin and L. R. Pavlinskaya (St. Petersburg, 2010), 189–209.

Korsun, S. A. “Tikhookeanskie eskimosy—alyutiik: istoriko-etnograficheskii ocherk” [The Pacific Eskimos—The Alutiiq: A Historical-Ethnographic Essay], Otkrytie Ameriki prodolzhaetsya [The Discovery of America Continues], edited by Yu. E. Berezkin, issue 4 (St. Petersburg, 2010), 186–210.

Korsun, S. A. “Aleutskoe sobranie Muzeya antropologii i etnografii imeni Petra Velikogo (Kunstkamera) Rossiiskoi akademii nauk” [The Aleut Collection of the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences], Amerikanistika: obrazy amerikanskoi kul’tury v sovremennom prochtenii. Materialy mezhdunarodnogo seminara (Arkhangel’sk, 8–10 oktyabrya 2012 g. [American Studies: Specimens of American Culture in Modern Interpretation. Materials for the International Seminar (Arkhangel’sk, 8–10 October 2012)], edited by E. P. Belyaeva (Arkhangel’sk, 2013), 41–50.

lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>Lyapunova, R. G. “Muzeinye materialy po aleutam. Orudiya okhoty aleutov (po materialam MAE)” [Museum Materials on the Aleuts. Hunting Tools of the Aleuts (Based on Materials of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography)], Sb. MAE [Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XXI (1963), 149–171.

Lyapunova, R. G. Morskoi zveroboinyi promysel aleutov XVIII–XIX v. (orudiya i sredstva okhoty): po materialam MAE [Sea mammal Hunting of the Aleuts of the 18 th–19 th Century (Tools and Means of Hunting): Based on Materials of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography] (Moscow, 1963).

Lyapunova, R. G. “Aleutskie baidarki” [Aleut Baidarkas], Sb. MAE [Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XXII (1964), 223–243.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Zoomorfnaya skul’ptura aleutov” [Zoomorphic Sculpture of the Aleuts], Kul’tura i byt narodov Ameriki. Sb. MAE [Culture and Way of Life of the Peoples of America. Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XXIV (Leningrad, 1967), 38–54.

lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>Lyapunova, R. G. Ocherki etnografii aleutov. Konets XVIII–pervaya polovina XIX v. [Essays on the Ethnography of the Aleuts. End of the 18 th–First Half of the 19 th Century] (Leningrad, 1975).

Lyapunova, R. G. “Pletenye izdeliya aleutov” [Basketry of the Aleuts], Kul’turnoe nasledie narodov Ameriki i Afriki. Sb. MAE [Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of America and Africa. Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XXXI (Leningrad, 1975), 52–68.

Lyapunova, R. G. “O proiskhozhdenii obryadovykh golovnykh uborov aleutov” [On the Origin of the Ceremonial Headgear of the Aleuts], Pervobytnoe iskusstvo [Primitive Art] (Novosibirsk, 1976), 157–165.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Traditsionnye ukrasheniya aleutov (k voprosu ob etnokul’turnykh svyazyakh v Tikhookeanskom basseine” [Traditional Decorations of the Aleuts (On the Question of Ethnocultural Connections in the Pacific Basin)], Drevnie kul’tury Sibiri i Tikhookeanskogo basseina [Ancient Cultures of Siberia and the Pacific Basin] (Novosibirsk, 1979), 201–210.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Voron v fol’klore i mifologii aleutov” [The Raven in the Folklore and Mythology of the Aleuts], Fol’klor i etnografiya. U etnograficheskikh istokov fol’klornykh syuzhetov i obrazov [Folklore and Ethnography. At the Ethnographic Sources of Folklore Subjects and Images], edited by B. N. Putilov (Leningrad, 1984), 23–34.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Golovnye ubory aleutov v sobranii MAE” [Headgear of the Aleuts in the Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], Kul’tura narodov Ameriki. Sb. MAE [The Culture of the Peoples of America. Bulletin of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], vol. XL (Leningrad, 1985), 4–49.

Lyapunova, R. G. “K probleme etnokul’turnogo razvitiya amerikanskikh aleutov (so vtoroi poloviny XVIII v. do nashikh dnei)” [On the Problem of Ethnocultural Development of American Aleuts (From the Second Half of the 18 th Century to Our Day)], Istoricheskie sud’by amerikanskikh indeitsev [The Historical Fortune of the American Indians] (Moscow, 1985), 293–305.

Lyapunova, R. G. Aleuty. Ocherki etnicheskoi istorii [The Aleuts. Essays on the Ethnic History] (Leningrad, 1987).

Lyapunova, R. G. “Aleuty i ikh ekosistema” [The Aleuts and Their Ecosystem], Ekologiya amerikanskikh indeitsev i eskimosov [Ecology of the American Indians and Eskimos] (Moscow: Nauka, 1988), 84–93.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Prazdnestva eskimosov ostrova Kad’yak” [Celebrations of the Eskimos of Kodiak Island], Fol’klor i etnicheskaya deistvitel’nost’ [Folklore and Ethnic Reality] (St. Petersburg, 1992), 71–87.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Etnokul’turnye kontakty russkikh s aleutami i tikhookeanskimi eskimosami v XVIII–XIX vv.” [Ethnocultural Contacts of the Russians with the Aleuts and Pacific Eskimos in the 18 th–19 th Centuries], Amerika posle Kolumba: vzaimodeistvie dvukh mirov. Problemy indeanistiki [America after Columbus: The Interaction of Two Worlds. Problems of Indian Studies] (Moscow, 1992), 73–85.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Aleuty k nachalu kontaktov s russkimi: nekotorye demograficheskie i kul’turnye aspekty (po rannim russkim istochnikam)” [The Aleuts at the Beginning of Contacts with the Russians: Some Demographic and Cultural Aspects (Based on Early Russian Sources)], Otkrytie Ameriki prodolzhaetsya [The Discovery of America Continues], issue 1 (St. Petersburg, 1993), 41–53.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Maski i drugie atributy prazdnichnykh predstavlenii eskimosov o. Kad’yak v sobranii MAE” [Masks and Other Attributes of Festivity Ideas of the Eskimos of Kodiak Island in the Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], Kunstkamera: vchera, segodnya, zavtra [The Kunstkamera: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow], vol. 1 (St. Petersburg, 1997), 166–184.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Etnograficheskie kollektsii po eskimosam-konyagam v sobranii MAE” [Ethnographic Collections from the Koniag Eskimos in the Collection of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography], Amerikanskie aborigeny i ikh kul’tura [American Natives and Their Culture] (St. Petersburg, 1998), 8–31.

Lyapunova, R. G. “Aleuty” [The Aleuts], Sibir’: etnosy i kul’tury (narody Sibiri v XIX v.) [Siberia: Ethnic Groups and Cultures (Peoples of Siberia in the 19 th Century)], edited by Z. P. Sokolova, issue 4 (Moscow-Ulan Ude, 1999), 40–61.

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End Notes

1) G. I. Shelikhov, Rossiiskago kuptsa Grigor’ya Shelikhova stranstvovanie s 1783 po 1787 god iz Okhotska po Vostochnomu okeanu k Amerikanskim beregam i vozvrashchenie ego v Rossiyu . . . [The Russian Merchant Grigorii Shelikhov’s Travels from 1783 to 1787 from Okhotsk across the Eastern Ocean to the American Shores and His Return to Russia. . .] (St. Petersburg, 1791); Romanov, V. P., “O Kolyuzhakh i Koloshakh voobshche” [On the Kolyuzhi and Koloshi in General], Severnyi arkhiv [Northern Archive], 17 (1825), 1–28; Russkaya Amerika. Po lichnym vpechatleniyam missionerov, zemleprokhodtsev, moryakov, issledovatelei i drugikh ochevidtsev [Russian America. Based on the Personal Impressions of Missionaries, Explorers, Sailors, Researchers, and Other Eyewitnesses], compiled by R. G. Lyapunova and others, edited by A. D. Dridzo and R. V. Kinzhalov (Moscow, 1994); and other works.

2) Cf.: Russkie otkrytiya v Tikhom okeane i Severnoi Amerike v XVIII veke [Russian Discoveries in the Pacific Ocean and North America in the 18th Century]. Edited by A. I. Andreev. Moscow, 1948. Pp. 185–199.

3) I. S. Gurvich, “K voprosu o parallelyakh v traditsionnoi kul’ture aborigennykh narodov Severnoi Azii i Severnoi Ameriki” [On the Question of Parallels in the Traditional Culture of the Native Peoples of Northern Asia and North America], Traditsionnye kul’tury Severnoi Sibiri i Severnoi Ameriki [Traditional Cultures of Northern Siberia and North America] (Moscow, 1981), 119–127; Yu. P. Averkieva, “O kul’te medvedya u indeitsev Severnoi Ameriki” [On the Bear Cult among the Indians of North America], Traditsionnye kul’tury Severnoi Sibiri i Severnoi Ameriki [Traditional Cultures of Northern Siberia and North America] (Moscow, 1981), 142–149.

4) E. M. Meletinskii, Paleoaziatskii mifologicheskii epos: Tsikl Vorona [A Paleoasiatic Mythological Epic: The Raven Cycle] (Moscow, 1979), 95–143.

5) See E. M. Meletinskii, “Paleoaziatskii epos o Vorone i problema otnoshenii Severo-Vostochnoi Azii i Severo-Zapadnoi Ameriki v oblasti fol’klora” [The Paleoasiatic Epic about Raven and the Problem of Relations of Northeast Asia and Northwestern America in the Realm of Folklore], Traditsionnye kul’tury Severnoi Sibiri i Severnoi Ameriki [Traditional Cultures of Northern Siberia and North America] (Moscow, 1981), 182–200.

6) Yu. P. Averkieva, Rabstvo u indeitsev Severnoi Ameriki [Slavery among the Indians of North America] (Moscow, 1941).

7) See for example, S. A. Korsun, “Iz istorii postupleniya severoamerikanskikh kollektsii MAE v XVIII stoletii” [From the History of Receipt of North American Collections by the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography in the 18 th Century], Otkrytie Ameriki prodolzhaetsya [The Discovery of America Continues], Issue 3 (St. Petersburg, 2001), 116–146.

8) Korsun, S. A. Amerikanistika v Kunstkamere (1714–2014) [American Studies in the Kunstkamera (1714–2014)]. St. Petersburg, 2015. Pp. 292–295, 299.

9) Cf.: Grinëv, A. V. “Nekotorye tendentsii v otechestvennoi istoriografii rossiiskoi kolonizatsii Alyaski” [Some Tendencies in Russian Historiography on Russian Colonization of Alaska]. Voprosy istorii [Questions of History] 11: 163–167. 1994.

[1]0) lang="ES" style='font-family: "Times",serif'>Lyapunova, lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>R

. lang="ES" style='font-family: "Times",serif'>G., lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>Ocherki lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'> lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>etnografii lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'> lang="ES" style='font-family:"Times",serif'>aleutov

. Konets XVIII–pervaya polovina XIX v. (Leningrad, 1975) [published in English as Essays on the Ethnography of the Aleuts: (At the End of the Eighteenth and the First Half of the Nineteenth Century), (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1996]; Idem., Aleuty. Ocherki etnicheskoi istorii [The Aleuts. Essays of Ethnic History] (Leningrad, 1987); A. V. Grinëv, Indeitsy tlinkity v period Russkoi Ameriki (1741–1867 gg.) (Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1991) [published in English as The Tlingit Indians in Russian America, 1741–1867 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005)]; A. V. Zorin, Indeiskaya voina v Russkoi Amerike [Indian Warfare in Russian America] (Kursk, 2002).

[1]1) See Tlinkity: Katalog kollektsii Kunstkamery, edited by Yu. E. Berezkin; compilation, text, and annotation by S. A. Korsun (St. Petersburg, 2007) [unpublished translation in English: “Tlingit: Catalog of the Collections in the Kunstkamera) (on file at Sealaska Heritage Institute, Juneau AK)]; Eskimosy alyutiik: Katalog kollektsii Kunstkamery, authored-compiled by S. A. Korsun, edited by Yu. E. Berezkin (St. Petersburg, 2010) [published in English as The Alutiit/Sugpiat: A Catalog of the Collections of the Kunstkamera (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2012)]; Aleuty: Katalog kollektsii Kunstkamery [The Aleuts: The Catalog of Collections of the Kunstkamera], authored-compiled by S. A. Korsun, edited by Yu. E. Berezkin (St. Petersburg, 2014).

[1]2) The Leningrad researcher R. G. Lyapunova tried to write such a work, but her untimely death did not permit finishing it.

*Andrei V. Grinёv is Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of History at Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in St. Petersburg, Russia ( agrinev1960@mail.ru). He is an authority on the Russian-American period in Alaska with about 200 articles and books published in Russia, the USA, Western Europe, Japan, and China.

Richard L. Bland (rbland@uoregon.edu) is a retired archaeologist for the Museum of Natural and Cultural History, University of Oregon, with a Ph.D. in anthropology. He has, in addition to conducting archaeology, translated from Russian over 150 articles and books, most concerned with the Russian-American period in Alaska.

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